DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20192759

Morbidity and mortality of low birth weight babies in early neonatal period in a rural area teaching hospital, Telangana, India

Jayalakshmi Pabbati, Preethi Subramanian, Mahesh Renikuntla

Abstract


Background: A baby’s weight at birth is a strong indicator of newborn health and nutrition. Low birth weight (LBW) babies are more susceptible to morbidities and mortality in early neonatal period than normal birth weight (NBW) babies. Among neonatal deaths, 80% occurs in LBW / preterm babies and 75% of total neonatal deaths occur in early neonatal period. The present study was undertaken to know the incidence and early neonatal outcome of LBW babies in rural area.

Methods: Prospective observational study was conducted in babies born with <2.5 kg (LBW) birth weight.

Results: The incidence of LBW babies was 25.07% with almost an equal contribution from preterm (50.46%) and Term Intra Uterine Growth Restricted (IUGR) (49.53%) babies. The most common morbidity found in LBW babies was Jaundice (40.09%) followed by respiratory distress (18.16%), sepsis (8.72%) and apnea (4.48%). Preterm-LBW babies had more morbidities in terms of apnea (100%), birth asphyxia (88.88%), respiratory distress (87.01%%), sepsis (80.55%) and jaundice (67.64%). Early neonatal mortality was 21.22 per 1000 live births. Mortality was 100% for babies <1 kg in birth weight, 16% in 1-1.499 kg group and 0.75% in 1.5-2.499 kg group in early neonatal period. According to gestational age, mortality in preterm-LBW babies was 88.88% and 11.11% in Term IUGR-LBW babies. The most common cause of death in LBW babies was birth asphyxia (44.44%) followed by hyaline membrane disease (HMD) (33.33%).

Conclusions: The present study revealed that preterm babies contributed 50% to incidence of LBW babies. Morbidity and mortality in LBW babies were inversely related to birth weight and gestational age.


Keywords


Low birth weight, Preterm, Morbidity, Mortality

Full Text:

PDF

References


WHO. Global nutrition targets 2025: low birth weight policy brief (WHO/NMH/NHD/14.5). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2014. Available at: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/149020/WHO_NMH_NHD_14.5_eng.pdf?ua=1.

Bhilwar M, Prakash UR, Yadav K, Kumar R, Chinnakali P, Smita S, et al. Estimating the burden of 'weighing less': a systematic review and meta-analysis of low birth-weight in India. Natl Med J India. 2016;29(2):73-81.

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF): UNICEF Data: Monitoring the situation of Children and Women. Available at: https://data.unicef.org/resources/nutrition-country-profiles/https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.STA.BRTW.ZS

National family health survey (NFHS-3) 2005-06. Child Health; Page 224. Available at : hetv.org/india/nfhs/nfhs3/NFHS-3-Chapter-09-Child-Health.pdf.

Sankar MJ, Neogi SB, Sharma J, Chauhan M, Srivastava R, Prabhakar PK, et al. State of newborn health in India. J Perinatol. 2016;36:S3-S8.

Mithila D. Low birth weight and premature births and their associated maternal factors. Int J Comm Med Public Heal. 2018;5(6):2277-85.

Gupta MK, Kakkar M, Sethi C, Malhotra AK. Pattern of morbidity and mortality in lbw neonates: a study from Jaipur. J Evol Med Dent Sci. 2014;3(6):1339-45.

Barros FC, Barros AJ, Villar J, Matijasevich A, Domingues MR, Victoria CG. How many low birthweight babies in low- and middle-income countries are preterm?. Rev Saude Pub. 2011;45(3):607-16.

Rahman K, Bhuyan AR, Ullah MA. incidence and clinical profile of low birth weight (lbw) babies: a rural tertiary care hospital-based study. N Ind J Ob-Gyn. 2015;2(1):43-45.

Agarwal N, Reddaiah VP. Factors affecting birth weight in a sub-urban community: a study in a secondary level hospital in Delhi. Health Popul Perspect Issues. 2005;28(4):189-96.

Felke Y, Enquoseassie F. Maternal age, parity and gestational age on the size of newborn in Addis Ababa. East Afr Med J. 1999;76(8):468-71.

Sapkal U, Sapkal R. An analytic study on normogram of birth weight and period of gestation in pregnancy. J Evol Med Dent Sci. 2013;2(49):9571-5.

Sangamam R. Perinatal mortality and morbidity among low birth weight babies. Int J Comm Med Pub Heal. 2017;2(1):51-8.

Hasthi UR, Ashwani N, Kumar CS, Chejeti SR. Morbidity and mortality patterns in small for gestational age versus appropriate for gestational age preterm neonates admitted in level II neonatal intensive care unit: a observational study. Int J Sci Stud. 2017;4(10):133-6.

Saminathan D, Mythili B, Ramesh E, Mary ZA. Incidence, morbidity pattern and outcome of low birth weight babies admitted in a rural tertiary care centre: a retrospective study. Int J Sci Stud. 2016;4(4):5-4.