DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20190684

Study of foot length as an alternate measurement for assessment of gestational maturity in neonates

Ananya S. L. Tenali, Ravi Kumar Tenali

Abstract


Background: The aim was to study neonatal foot length as a simple method for quick gestational age assessment which can be done by basic healthcare personnel overcoming the technicality required by other assessment methods.

Methods: Prospective descriptive study was done. Live born neonates at Saveetha Medical College, Kanchipuram from June 2016 to June2017 were enrolled. Gestational age was assessed by New Ballard’s Scoring and footlength was measured using the paddle blades of automated digital Vernier calipers within 24 hours while birth weight was taken within 72 hours of birth. Based on gestational age, babies were grouped into preterm, term and post term and were subclassified as small for gestational age (SGA), appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and large for gestational age (LGA) based on Lubchenco’s intrauterine growth chart. Correlation and regression analysis and Scattergram was done.

Results: Out of 300 neonates, term, preterm and post-term were 70.3%,28.3% and1.3% while SGA, AGA, and LGA babies were 9%, 88% and 3%. Mean foot length was 7.728cm±0.59 with a range of 5-8.8cm. Foot length strongly correlated with gestational age in Preterm AGA, SGA and Term AGA babies (<0.001). Correlation coefficient of foot length with gestational age was higher in preterms (r=0.95). Gestational age in 54% of study population could be calculated with the derived regression equation derived.

Conclusions: Foot length maybe useful for quick estimation of gestational age in preterm and term neonates for early referral of newborns requiring special care and can even be done by basic healthcare personnel.


Keywords


Foot length, Gestational age, Neonate, New Ballard score, Preterm

Full Text:

PDF

References


UNICEF Data. Monitoring the situation of children and women. Available at: https://data.unicef.org/topic/child-survival/neonatal-mortality/

United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UN IGME), ‘Levels & Trends in Child Mortality: Report 2017, Estimates Developed by the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation’, United Nations Children’s Fund, New York, 2017.

Sankar MJ, Neogi SB, Sharma J, Chauhan M, Srivastava R, Prabhakar PK, et al. State of newborn health in India. J Perinatol. 2016(36):S3-8.

American Academy of Pediatrics. Age terminology during the perinatal period. Pediatr. 2004;114(5):1362-4.

Ballard RA, Gleason CA, Avery ME. Avery's diseases of the newborn. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2005:109-125.

Cloherty JP. Manual of Neonatal Care. 7th ed. Philadelphia USA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2012:78-89.

M. Care of the New Born. 7th ed. St. Louis: CV Mosby; 2010:234-252.

World Health Organization, The Partnership for Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health, Save the Children; March of Dimes. Born Too Soon: the Global Action Report on Preterm Birth.

Kulkarni ML, Rajendran NK. Values for foot length in newborns. Indian Pediatr. 1992;29:507-9.

Lubchenco LO, Hansman C, Dressler M, Boyd E. Intrauterine growth as estimated from live born birth-weight data at 24 to 42 weeks of gestation. Pediatr. 1963;32(5):793-800.

Srivastava A, Sharma U, Kumar S. To study correlation of foot length and gestational age of new born by new Ballard score. Int J Res Med Sci. 2017;3(11):3119-22.

Shah SS, Shrestha PS, Gami FC. G01 detection of low birth weight newborns by foot length as proxy measure of birth weight. Arch Dis Childhood. 2005;90:A9.

James DK, Dryburgh EH, Chiswick ML. Foot length-a new and potentially useful measurement in the neonate. Arch Dis Childhood. 1979;54(3):226-30.

Gohil JR, Sosi M, Vani SN, Desai AB. Footlength measurement in the neonate. Indian J Pediatr. 1991;58(5):675-7.

Rakkappan I, Kuppusamy N. Newborn foot length measurement to identify high-risk neonate. Int J Sci Stud. 2016;4:13-9.

Yadav R, Bhatnagar JP, Gunjan, Verma R, Gupta S, Gupta VK, et al. Gestational age assessment in newborns using regression equation of anthropometric parameters singly or in combination. IJBR. 2016;7(8):600-5.