DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20190449

Study on etiological profile of respiratory distress in new borns in a teaching hospital

C. P. V. Ramana Sastry, Maram Padmavathi

Abstract


Background: The aim is to study the various risk factors associated with development of severe respiratory distress in the new born.

Methods: This was a prospective study of 200 new-borns with respiratory distress. Clinical details, etiology for the respiratory distress, system-wise factors responsible for the distress, severity and duration of respiratory distress, oxygen therapy, type of treatment, mortality, maternal and antenatal risk factors, radiological findings were noted in all the cases and were analysed.

Results: Of the 200 cases with respiratory distress, 118 (59%) had severe respiratory distress. 154 cases with distress were of respiratory system in origin out of which 45% (70 out of 154) were due to Meconium aspiration syndrome, 42% (64 out of 154) were due to Respiratory distress syndrome, 12% (18 out of 154) were due to transient tachypnea of new-born and 2% were due to congenital pneumonia. More number of female patients had severe respiratory distress. Mortality was 2.5%.

Conclusions: Meconium aspiration syndrome is the most common cause of respiratory distress in new born. Almost 60% of new borns with respiratory distress developed severe respiratory distress who required intensive monitoring. Risk factors like meconium stained liquor, vaginal delivered new borns, preterm gestation age, and female gender of new born were associated with severe respiratory distress in new borns.


Keywords


Maternal risk factors, Meconium aspiration syndrome, Respiratory distress in new born

Full Text:

PDF

References


Swarnakar K, Swarnakar M. Neonatal respiratory distress in early neonatal period and its outcome. Int J Biomed Adv Res. 2015;6:643-7.

Niswade A, Zodpey SP, Ughade S, Bangdiwala SI. Neonatal morbidity and mortality in tribal and rural communities in central India. Indian J Community Med. 2011;36:150-8.

Shah GS, Yadav S, Thapa A, Shah L. Clinical profile and outcome of neonates admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) at a tertiary care centre in Eastern Nepal. J Nepal Paediatr Soc. 2013;33:177-81.

Edwards MO, Kotecha SJ, Kotecha S. Respiratory distress of the term newborn infant. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2013;14:29-36.

Kommawar A, Borkar R, Vagha J, Lakhkar B, Meshram R, Taksandae A. Study of respiratory distress in newborn. Int J Contemp Pediatr 2017;4:490-4.

Bassey G, Inimgba NM. Fetomaternal outcome of twin gestation in Port Harcourt, South Nigeria. Nigerian J Med. 2014;23(4):282-7.

Santosh S, Kumar K, Adarsha E. A Clinical study of respiratory distress in new born and its outcome. Indian J Neonatal Med Res. 2013;1(1):2-4.

Dani C, Reali MF, Bertini G, Wiechmann L, Spagnolo A, Tangucci M, et al. Risk factors for the development of respiratory distress syndrome and transient tachypnoea in new born infants. Eur Respir J. 1999;14:155-9.

Luerti M, Parazzini F, Agarossi A, Bianchi C, Rocchetti M, Bevilacqua G. Risk factors for respiratory distress syndrome in the newborn: A multicenter Italian survey. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1993;72(5):359-64.

Rygal M. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome: an autopsy study of 190 cases. Indian J Pediatr. 1985:52;43-6.

Monen L, Hasaart TH, Kuppens SM. The aetiology of meconium-stained amniotic fluid: pathologic hypoxia or physiologic foetal ripening. Early Hum Dev. 2014;90(7):325-8.

Tudehope DI, Smyth MH. Is transient tachypnoea of the newborn” always a benign disease? Report of 6 babies requiring mechanical ventilation. Aust Paediatr J. 1979;15(3):160-5.

Miller HC. Respiratory distress syndrome of newborn infants: statistical evaluation of factors possibly affecting survival of premature infants. Pediatr. 1998;31(4):573-9.

Kumar A, Bhat BV. Epidemiology of respiratory distress in new born. Indian J Pediatr. 1996;63:93-8.

Nagendra K, Wilson CG, Ravichander B, Sood S, Singh SP. Incidence and etiology of respiratory distress in new born. Med J Armed Forces India. 1999;55(4):331-3.

Dawei Z. Discordance between male and female deaths due to the respiratory distress syndrome. Pediatr. 1986;78:238-42.

Kirsti HN. Disease early postnatal dexamethasone therapy for the prevention of chronic lung. Pediatr. 2001;108:741-8.

Kurl S, Heinonen KM, Kiekara O. The first chest radiograph in neonates exhibiting respiratory distress at birth. Clin Pediatr. 1997;36:285-9.

Shahri HMMS, Naghibi S, Mahdavi E, Khademi G. Diagnostic utility of chest x-rays in neonatal respiratory distress: determining the sensitivity and specificity. Int J Pediatr. 2014;2(4.2):65-72.

Fetal Care Center Cincinnati. Available at: ww.fetalcarecenter.org.

Mc Honey M. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia management in new born. Paediatr Surg Int J. 2015;31(11):31.

Urs PS, Khan F, Maiya PP. Bubble CPAP. A primary respiratory support for respiratory distress in new borns. Ind Pediatr. 2009;46(5):409-11.

Cheng-Hwa Ma C, Ma S. The role of surfactant in respiratory distress syndrome. Open Resp Med J. 2012;6:44-53.

Escobar GJ, Clark RH, Greene JD. Outcomes of infants born at 35 and 36 weeks gestation. Semin Neonatol. 2000;5:89-106.

Bhutta ZA, Yusuf K. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome in Karachi: Some epidemiological considerations. Paediatr Perinatal Epidemiol. 1997;11:37-43.

Kamath BD, Mac Guire ER, Elizabeth M, Mc Clure, Goldenberg RL, Jobe AH. Division of Neonatology, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics. 2011;127(6):1139-46.

Burgos MC, Hammarqvist-Veide J, Frenckner B, Conner P. Differences in outcomes in prenatally diagnosed congenital diaphragmatic hernia compared to postnatal detection: a single-center experience. Fetal Diag Therapy. 2016;39(4):241-7.

Malhotra AK, Nagpal R, Gupta RK, Chhajta DS, Arora RK. Respiratory distress in new born: treated with mechanical ventilation in a level 2 nursery. Indian Paediatr. 1995;32:207-11.

Riyas PK, Vijayakumar KM, Kulkarni ML. Neonatal mechanical ventilation. Indian J Paediatr. 2003;70(7):537-40.