Aetiological profile of fever in neonatal and paediatric population in hospital setting


  • Amitabh Dwivedi Department of Pediatrics, Kanchi Kamakoti Childs Trust Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India



Aetiology, Dengue, Fever, Malaria, Neonates, Pediatric population, Viral fever


Background: Febrile illness in children is a common cause of admission to hospital globally, with significant associated morbidity and mortality. Dengue, malaria, scrub typhus, typhoid and leptospirosis have been identified as major causes of acute undifferentiated febrile illness in Thailand, Malaysia, and Nepal. Climate variation, over population and urbanization may all contribute to the emergence and reemergence of infections in tropical regions like Tamil Nadu. The objectives of this study were to describe the aetiology of fever in hospitalized neonatal and Pediatric population. A descriptive study was designed.

Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted. All children from 0 to 18 years admitted as in-patients. Sample size was calculated to be 650. Basic laboratory tests were done in all cases.

Results: Out of a total of 650 children maximum number (40.7% n=265) of patients had short duration of fever between 1 to 3 days. Majority (56%) of patients had temperature between 100.4 to 101F. Only 5 children were confirmed to have malaria. Maximum number of pus cells found was 80 to 100 in 3 children in urine examination. Total Infectious cases were 631 (97.07%).

Conclusions: Infectious aetiology was more common than non-infectious aetiology. Among all aetiologies, viral fever particularly dengue was the most common aetiology. Enteric fever was the second most common infectious cause of fever after viral fever.  Short febrile illness (1 to 5 days) was the most common type of fever in children admitted in hospital. In neonates, the most common cause of fever was probable sepsis followed by dehydration fever.


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