A study of prevalence and pattern of congenital heart disease at Sopore, Kashmir, North India


  • Suhail Naik Department of Pediatrics, SDH, Sopore Baramulah, Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir, India
  • Mohd. Irshad Department of Pediatrics, Baramulah Medical College, Baramulah, Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir, India
  • Aliya Kachroo Department of Pediatrics, RBSK, Baramulah Medical College, Baramulah, Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir, India
  • Mudasir Ahmad RBSK, SDH, Sopore Baramulah, Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir, India




Congenital heart disease, PDA, Prevalence, VSD


Background: Early detection of congenital heart disease is of paramount importance to improve the quality of life of children and prevent morbidity and mortality. Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in the pediatric population of both the developing and developed countries. Present aim was to study the prevalence, age and sex wise distribution, and clinical spectrum of congenital heart disease (CHD) at Sopore, Kashmir, North India.

Methods: Around 39829 children in the age group 0 months to 18 years were screened for Defects at birth, Diseases in children, Deficiency conditions and Developmental Delays including Disabilities over the period of 18 months under RBSK. Clinical examination, echocardiography and color Doppler were used as diagnostic tools.

Results: A prevalence of 5.3 per 1000 population was observed. VSD (ventricular septal defect) was the commonest lesion (30.1%), followed by PDA (patent ductus arteriosus) in 21.6 % and ASD (atrial septal defect) in 20.2%. Tetralogy of Fallot was the commonest cyanotic heart disease (8.0%). Maximum numbers of children with heart disease were diagnosed in the age group 6 weeks to 6 years.

Conclusions: For better estimation of prevalence of congenital heart diseases, more elaborate community-based studies are needed. Such community based studies can be easily done by collecting and analyzing data collected from screening programs like RBSK. Such community based screening programs helps in detecting silent cardiac ailments, their prevalence and pattern, and early therapeutic intervention. A few prevalence studies have been carried out piecemeal in different locations of India; and more such studies can be easily done by collecting and analyzing data collected under RBSK screening program.


Mitchell SC, Korones SB, Berendes HW. Congenital heart disease in 56,109 births. Incidence and natural history. Circulation 1971;43:323-32.

Dolk H, Loane M, EUROCAT Steering Committee. Congenital Heart Defect in Europe: 2000-2005. Newtownabbey, Northern Ireland: University of Ulster; March 2009. Available at: http://eurocat.bio-medical.co.uk/content/Special-Report.pdf.

Bernier PL, Stefanescu A, Samoukovic G, Tchervenkov CI. The challenge of congenital heart disease worldwide: epidemiologic and demographic facts. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Pediatr Card Surg Annu. 2010;13:26-34.

Hoffman JIE. The global burden of congenital heart disease. Cardiovascular J Africa. 2013;24:141-5.

Saxena A. Congenital heart disease in India: A status report. Indian J Pediatr. 2005;72:595-8.

Kapoor R, Gupta S. Prevalence of congenital heart disease, Kanpur, India. Indian Pediatr. 2008;45:309-11.

Berstein D. Epidemiology and genetic basis of congenital heart disease prevalence. In: Kleigman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanson BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Saunders Elsevier: Philadelphia; 2007;1878-1881.

Fyler DC, Buckley LP, Hellenbrand WE, Cohn HE. Report of the New England regional infant care program. Pediatrics. 1980;65:375-461.

Abdulla R. What is the prevalence of congenital heart diseases. Pediatr Cardiol. 1997;18:268.

Hoffman JI, Kaplan S. The incidence of congenital heart disease. J Am Col Cardiol. 2002;39:1890-900.

Noonan JA, Ehmke DA. Associated non cardiac malformations in children with congenital heart disease. J Pediatr. 1963;63:468-71.

Shrestha NK, Padmavati S. Congenital heart disease in Delhi school children. Indian J Med Res. 1980;72:403-7.

Gupta I, Gupta ML, Parihar A, Gupta CD. Epide-miology of rheumatic and congenital heart diseases in school children. J Indian Med Assoc. 1992;90:57-9.

Vashishtha VM, Kalra A, Kalra K, Jain VK. Preva-lence of congenital heart disease in school children. Indian Pediatr. 1993;30:1337-40.

Khalil A, Aggarwal R, Thirupuram S, Arora R. Incidence of congenital heart disease among hospi-tal live births in India. Indian Pediatr. 1994;31:519-26.

Thakur JS, Negi PC, Ahluwalia SK, Sharma R, Bhardwaj R. Congenital heart disease among school children in Shimla hills. Indian Heart J. 1995;47:232-5.

Chadha SL, Singh N, Shukla DK. Epidemiological study of congenital heart disease. Indian J Pediatr. 2001;68:507-10.

Ashraf M, Chowdhary J, Khajuria K, Reyaz AM. Spectrum of congenital heart disease in Kashmir, India. Indian Pediatr. 2009;46:1107-8.

Bhat NK, Dhar M, Kumar R, Patel A, Rawat A, Kalra BP. Prevalence and pattern of congenital heart disease in Uttarakhand, India. Indian J Pediatr. 2013;80:281-5.

Misra M, Mittal M, Verma AM Rai R, Chandra G, Singh DP, et al. Prevalence and pattern of congenital heart disease in school children of Eastern Uttar Pradesh. Indian Heart J. 2009;61:58-60.

Sawant SP, Amin AS, Bhat M. Prevalence, pattern and outcome of congenital heart disease in Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Hospital, Mumbai. Indian J Pediatr. 2013;80:286-91.

Smitha R, Karat SC, Narayanappa D, Krishnamurthy B, Prasanth SN, Ramachandra NB. Prevalence of congenital heart disease in Mysore. Indian J Hum Genet. 2006;12:11-6.

Jatav RK, Kumbhare MB, Srinivas M, Rao DR, Kumar PG, Reddy PR, et al. Prevalence and pattern of congenital heart diseases in Karimnagar, Andhra Pradesh, India: diagnosed clinically and by trans-thoracic-two-dimensional echocardiography. Int J Res Med Sci. 2014;2:186-92.

Van der Linde D, Konings EE, Slager MA, Witsenburg M, Helbing WA, Takkenberg JJ, et al. Birth prevalence of congenital heart disease world-wide: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;58:2241-7.

Reller MD, Strickland MJ, Riehle-Colarusso T, Mahle WT, Correa A. Prevalence of congenital heart defects in metropolitan Atlanta, 1998-2005. J Pediatr. 2008;153:807-13.

Dolk H, Loane M, Garne E. The prevalence of congenital anomalies in Europe. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;686:349-64.

Wu MH, Chen HC, Lu CW, Wang JK, Huang SC, Huang SK. Prevalence of congenital heart disease at live birth in Taiwan. J Pediatr. 2010;156:782-5.

Stephensen SS, Sigfusson G, Eiriksson H, Sverrisson JT, Torfason B, Haraldsson A, et al. Congenital cardiac malformations in Iceland from 1990 through 1999. Cardiol Young. 2004;14:396-401.






Original Research Articles