Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, gender difference and its co morbidity among urban school children in a city of southern Rajasthan, India


  • Anubhuti Bhardwaj Department of Pediatrics, Geetanjali Medical College and Hospital, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
  • Sanjay Mandot Department of Pediatrics, Geetanjali Medical College and Hospital, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
  • Hemant Jain Department of Pediatrics, Geetanjali Medical College and Hospital, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India



Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Child behavior checklist (CBCL), INCLEN, Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)


Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed disorders of childhood (3-5%). The main characteristics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.  The Objective of this study was to study prevalence of ADHD in school aged children.

Methods: A cross sectional descriptive school-based study was conducted in a private school of Udaipur from January 2017 to September 2018.  All eligible students were included. Total 1200 students were enrolled. They were assessed for the presence of ADHD using INCLEN diagnostic tool and those found positive were further assessed for the presence of co-morbid conditions using child behavior checklist (CBCL).

Results: In present study out of total 1200 students 730(60.83%) were male and 470(39.17%) were female. 76 (6.3%) students out of 1200 were ADHD Positive. ADHD was more common in male students (73.7%), urban locality (57.89%), in age group 6 to 9 years (44.7%) and higher economic class (46.1%). Hyperactivity-Impulsivity type was most common type (51.32%). Male students had predominance of hyperactivity (60.7%) whereas in female student’s inattention type was predominant (45%). Aggressive Behavior (19.6%) and rule breaking behavior (80.4%) was more common in male. Somatic complaints were more common in females (60%). Oppositional defiant disorder was observed in male (21.4%) and female (10%) students. 15.8% of ADHD students had learning disorder.

Conclusions: Present study shows 6.3% prevalence of ADHD. Hyperactivity type of ADHD was more common in boys, while Inattention type was more common in girls. Among associated co morbid conditions - aggressive behavior, rule breaking behavior and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) was found to be more prevalent in boys while anxious behavior, somatic complaints and social problems were more commonly found in girls. Thought problems, learning disorders and conduct disorders are also observed in ADHD students.


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