Prevalence and risk factors associated with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in ICDS block of rural Hubli, Karnataka, India

Shivanand Illalu, Naveen Kumar P., Vinod H. Ratageri, Prakash K. Wari


Background: Malnutrition is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children under the age of five years in developing countries. Despite economic growth of nearly 10% per annum, in India in 2006 the NFHS-3 indicated that 6.4% of children below 60 months of age were suffering from severe acute malnutrition. This study was undertaken to know the prevalence and the risk factors associated with SAM in ICDS block of rural Hubli.

Methods: This was a cross sectional observational community based study conducted in the ICDS block of rural Hubli. All children in the age group of 0- 59 months were included in the study. The study is conducted by the department and it is self-funded by the authors, no monetary benefit either from the institute or from the government or its organization.

Results: Among 1796 children who were examined in present study, the prevalence of SAM children was 5.79% (104 children). 48% were in the age group of 37 months to 59 months. Male: female ratio was 2:3. 51% of the mothers and 47.1% of fathers were illiterate. 82.7% of the parents had per capita income belonged to class 5 of the modified B.G. Prasad classification. 60% of the SAM children were seen in families who had 3 or 4 children. Maternal anemia, IUGR and PIH were seen in 53.6%, 21.6% and 18% respectively. Low birth weight (<2.5kg) and Birth asphyxia were seen in 80.6% and 11.1%.

Conclusions: The risk factors for SAM were illiteracy, low per capita income, high order births, maternal anemia, IUGR, PIH, low birth weight and Birth asphyxia. Due emphasis should be given in improving the knowledge and practices of the parents on appropriate infant and young child feeding practices.


Feeding practices, Immunization, Low income, Malnutrition, Prevalence, Risk factors, Severe acute malnutrition

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