DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20190712

A clinical study of retinopathy of prematurity in neonates in a tertiary care hospital

Srinivasa V., Vijay Yadav, Kumar G. V.

Abstract


Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disease process mostly reported in preterm neonates with a wide spectrum, ranging from mild, transient changes in the retina with regression to severe progressive vasoproliferation, scarring, detachment of retina and blindness. India shares 20% of the world childhood blindness. Besides congenital cataract, congenital glaucoma and ocular injuries, ROP is emerging as one of the important causes of childhood blindness in India.

Methods: A cross sectional study was undertaken among all neonates born between 28-34 weeks of gestation admitted in NICU, who are under oxygen, screened for ROP. Babies with ocular disorder which interfere with fundus examination, babies who did not complete follow up till complete vascularisation of retina and babies with congenital retinal abnormalities were excluded from the study.

Results: About 13.3% of male children and 18.0% of the female children had retinopathy of prematurity. Among the infants born before 30 weeks, 46.7% had retinopathy of prematurity. In the children with gestational age between 30- 32 weeks, 15.4%, 8.5% in the 32-35 weeks and none among those born between more than 35 weeks. About 27.9% of the newborns with birth weight of less than 1.5kgs and 5.8% of those who had birth weight of 1.5-2.5kgs had retinopathy of prematurity.

Conclusions: This study had shown a significant association of retinopathy of prematurity with the low gestational age, birth weight and oxygen therapy. Reducing subsequent post-natal risk factors depends on optimal perinatal and postnatal care, as well as adhering to strict ROP screening guidelines. Recognizing and treating ROP in a timely fashion is critical for achieving the best visual outcome.


Keywords


Oxygen therapy, Preterm, Retinopathy of prematurity

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