DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20183534

A study on the failure of breast feeding during the first month of life with effect on immunological level

Shyamali Datta, Bijan Kumar Datta, Avirupa Kansha Banik, Nilanjan Datta

Abstract


Background: In the critical phase of immunological immaturity of the newborn, particularly for the immune system of mucous membranes, infants receive large amounts of bioactive components through colostrum and breast milk. Breastfeeding provides unsurpassed natural nutrition to the newborn and infant. Study was done to know the effects of breast milk feeding versus formula feeding in early infancy on the development of serum IgA, IgM and IgG.

Methods: The present study investigated 100 cases of failure of breast feeding. The cases included both complete and partial failure. Values of immunoglobulin levels (IgA, IgM and IgG) in the serum of eleven breast fed and eleven artificially fed infants (all aged one month) were determined using Tripartigen plates.

Results: Mean level of IgA in artificially fed infants was 20.72±3.82µg/100 ml. The diameter of precipitin ring using sample number 7 was 3.9 mm. The mean level of IgA in breast fed infants was 25.94±3.89 µg/100 ml.  The mean level of IgM in artificially fed infants was 31.690±3.504 µg/100 ml. The mean level of IgM in breast fed infants was 36.81±5.13 µg/100 ml. The mean level of IgG in artificially fed infants was 480.25±52.23 µg /100 ml. The mean level of IgG in breast fed infants was 517.59±56.72 µg /100 ml.

Conclusions: It is evident from the results of immunoglobulin estimation (Ig A, Ig M and IgG) in infants with artificial milk and in infants with breast milk (vide table 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10) that though the mean serum levels (Ig A, Ig M and IgG) in breast fed infants were slightly higher than that of artificially fed infants. There was no statistically significant difference in the serum immunoglobulin levels between these two groups.

Keywords


Artificial feeding, Breast feeding, Human milk, Immunoglobulins, Infants

Full Text:

PDF

References


Palmeira P, Carneiro-Sampaio M. Immunology of breast milk. Rev Assoc Med Bras. 2016;62(6):584-93.

Hosea Blewett HJ, Cicalo MC, Holland CD, Field CJ. The immunological components of human milk. Adv Food Nutr Res. 2008;54:45-80.

Nash DR, Heremans JF. A quantitative antibody-binding method for the determination of specific antibody within different immunoglobulin classes: application to four Ig classes in the mouse. Immunology. 1969;17(5):685-94.

Thakar YS, Kulkarni C, Pande S, Dhanvijay AG, Shrikhande AV, Saoji AM. Reverse single radial immunodiffusion for estimation of titre of anti IgG antibody. Indian J Exp Biol. 1993 May;31(5):426-9.

Mathur GP, Chitranshi S, Mathur S, Singh SB, Bhalla M. Lactation failure. Indian Pediatr. 1992 Dec;29(12):1541-4.

Shirima R, Greiner T, Kylberg E, Gebre-Medhin M. Exclusive breast-feeding is rarely practised in rural and urban Morogoro, Tanzania. Pub Heal Nutr. 2000;4(2):147-54.

Nutrition and breastfeeding promotion. Available at: http://www.who.int/pmnch/media/publications/aonsectionIII_6.pdf

Ballard O, Morrow AL. Human milk composition: nutrients and bioactive factors. Pediatr Clinics North Am. 2013;60(1):49-74.

Hanson LA, Korotkova M, Lundin S, Håversen L, Silfverdal SA, MattsbyBaltzer I, et al. The transfer of immunity from mother to child. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;987:199-206.

Cheng MM, Huang CF, Yang LY, Lin YG, Peng HJ, Chang CY, et al. Development of serum IgA and IgM levels in breast-fed and formula-fed infants during the first week of life. Early Hum Dev. 2012 Sep;88(9):743-5.

Chandra RK. Immunoglobulin and protein levels in breast milk produced by mothers of preterm infants. Nutr Res. 1982;2(1):27-30.

World Health Organization. Report of the expert consultation on the optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Geneva. Switzerland. 2002;28-30. Available at:

http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/infantfeeding/WHO_NHD_01.09/en/

American Academy of Pediatrics-Work group on breastfeeding. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics. 1997;100:1035-9.

Ferreira TRB, Rispamonte C, Stella LC, Albadalejo RGC. Immunology of breast milk. Rev Perspectivas Médicas. 1998;9:22-8.

Xantou M. Immune protection of human milk. Biol Neonate. 1998;74:121-33.

Kunzs C, Palmero MR, Koletzko B, Jensen R. Nutritional and biochemical properties of human milk, Paret II: Lipids, micronutrients and bioactive factors. Clin Perinatol. 1999;26:335-60.

Araújo Edílson D, Katherine GA, da Conceição CM, Heleana C, Maria L C, Siani SS, et al . Evaluation of the secretory immunoglobulin A levels in the colostrum and milk of mothers of term and pre-trerm newborns. Braz J Infect Dis. 2005 Oct; 9(5):357-62.

Barros MD, Carneiro-Sampaio MMS. Milk composition of low birth weight infant mother. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1984;73:693-5.

Grumach AS, Carmona RC, Lazarotti D, Ribeiro MA, Rozentraub RB, Racz ML, et al. Immunological factors in milk from Brazilian mothers delivering small-for-date term neonates. Acta Paediatr. 1993;82:289-90.