DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20190035

Usefulness of fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosis of causes of lymphadenopathy in children

Chandra Sekhar Kondapalli, Goutham Mandali

Abstract


Background: The present study was conducted to study the causes of lymphadenopathy, associated clinical findings, usefulness of FNAC in diagnosis of various causes of lymphadenopathy as lymph node biopsy is a difficult and invasive procedure in children attending pediatric department.

Methods: A study was done at Katuri medical college and hospital. A total of 50 patients with lymphadenopathy including both local and generalized were studied for a period of 2 years by taking proper history, through physical examination both generalized and systemic and all the patients were subjected for relevant investigations for establishment of diagnosis which is essential for institution of proper treatment. A prospective study consisting 50 patients with lymphadenopathy (<12year) is undertaken to find the incidence of various causes of lymphadenopathy in the affected patients for 2 year.

Results: It was observed that 10, 17 and 23 children were having lymphadenopathy in the age groups of 0-3-year, 4-8 year and 9-12 year respectively. Majority of patients were having lymphadenopathy only after 4 year of age, male 28 and female 22. The major symptoms in order of incidence were palpable swelling, fever, cough, weight loss, loss of appetite and sore throat. Duration of lymphadenopathy of less than 1 month was seen in 25 cases ,1-6 months 24 cases and more than 6 months in 1 case. Enlargement of lymph nodes in cervical region, was the major finding in these patients. 47 cases were having local lymphadenopathy mainly in the cervical region and 3 cases were having generalized lymphadenopathy. 80% of the patients were having firm lymph nodes, remaining 20% of the patients were having soft lymphadenopathy. 36 patients were having mobile lymph nodes while 14 patients were having matted lymph nodes. Tenderness was observed in 21 cases against absence of tenderness in 29 cases. Analysis of the FNAC results revealed positive for tuberculosis in 11 cases reactive hyperplasia in 26 cases, granulomatous changes seen in 4 cases and suppurative lymphadenitis in 6 cases.

Conclusions: In developing countries like India whenever a patient attends the Department of Paediatrics with lymphadenopathy it is always be prudent to exclude tuberculosis, which is quite prevalent. FNAC is helpful in those with benign conditions like reactive hyperplasia to rule out underlying serious systemic diseases and reassuring the parents.


Keywords


FNAC in lymphadenopathy, FNAC vs clinical lymphadenopathy, Lymphadenopathy in children

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