Evaluation of congenital heart disease clinically and by echocardiography in children of age group 0-12 years


  • Chandra Sekhar Kondapalli Department of Pediatrics, Katuri Medical College and Hospital, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India
  • Kalyan Chakravarthy Gondi Department of Pediatrics, Katuri Medical College and Hospital, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India
  • Sravya Madana Department of Pediatrics, Guntur Medical College, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India




Congenital heart disease, Echo in children, Echo vs clinical


Background: The present study was conducted to evaluate clinical and echo-cardio graphic findings of congenital heart disease in children of age-group 0-12 years attending present hospital.

Methods: A study was done at Katuri Medical College and hospital in 65 patients aged 0-12 years; both sexes; for a period of 2 years. study design is exploratory, with proforma been designed to study congenital heart diseases. Alexander Nada’s criteria is used.

Results: Out of 4145 cases; 65 cases aged 0-12 years have congenital heart disease over a period of 2 years; (acyanotic 55 cases and cyanotic 10 cases). 23 cases are between 1-5 years and 20 cases are >5 years; 1/3rd cases diagnosed before 1 year of age. male 40 cases and female 25 cases. Urban cases-27 and rural cases are 38.48 cases have consanguinity and family history in 12 cases. extra cardiac manifestations in 6 cases. Normal sized heart with normal vascularity of lung was seen in 14 / 65 cases. 51/65 cases showed various radiological features depending on type of lesion based on echo findings. Among the ACHDs VSD was the commonest CHD seen in children. Among the cyanotic heart diseases TOF was the commonest CHD observed, comprising of 6 cases.

Conclusions: Chest X-ray was abnormal in 80% of cases with increased CT ratio in 58.3% cases. ECG was abnormal in 73.3% of cases and majority of them had left axis deviation.95%of CHDs, including ACHDs and CCHDs which were diagnosed clinically include ASD, VSD, PDA, AS, PS, CoA, TOF, TGA. Most common clinically diagnosed CHD was VSD. Clinico echo correlation was accurate in 75% cases. Clinico echo correlation was highest with isolated lesions like VSD, ASD and in cases with typical findings like CoA, PDA, AS, TOF and least with multiple lesions or atypical findings.


Bernstein D. Congenital heart disease. In: Behrman, Kleigman, Jenson, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 17th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2004:1499-1502.

Webb GD, Smallhorn JF, Therrein J. Congenital Heart Disease. In: Zipes, Libby, Bonow, Braunwald, editors. Braunwalds Heart Disease. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2005:1489-1547.

Saxena A. Congenital heart disease in India: A status report. Indian J Pediatr. 2005;72(7):595-8.

Perloff JK. The clinical recognition of congenital heart disease. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2003:1-3.

Gupte S, Saini G. Congenital heart disease: Clinicoechocardiographic profile in children. Asian J Pediatr Pract. 2004;8(2):30-4.

Suguna Bai, Vijaylaxmi MS, Nair PM. Congenital malformation of the cardiovascular system. Indian Pediatr. 1988;25:839-44.

Gupta S, Puri RK, Indira OG, Datta SP. Morbidity in Children under father in S. India. Indian Pediatr. 1968;5:485.

Samanek M, Voriskova M. Congenital heart diseases among 8,15,569 children born between 1980 and 1990 and their 15 yrs survival: A prospective study (Bohemial). Pediatr Cardiol. 1999;20:411-7.

Walloopillai NJ, Jayasinghe MS. Congenital heart disease in Ceylon. British Heart J. 1970;32:304-6.

Shreshta NK, Padmavati S. Congenital heart disease in Delhi school children. Indian J Med Res. 1980;72:403-7.

Latha V, Rao MN, Dayasagar, Reddy. Clinical and hemodynamic studies of cyanotic congenital heart disease. Indian Pediatr. 1975;XVI(11):1011-4.

Tank S, Malik S, Joshi S. Epidemiology of CHD among hospitalized patients. Bombay Heart J. 2004;46(2):144-50.

Kasturi L, Amin A, Mashmkar VA. Congenital Heart Disease: Clinical Spectrum. Indian Pediatr. 1999;36:953-4.

Pai BV, Varkey CC. Spectrum of congenital heart disease in a general hospital. Indian J Pediatr. 1974;41(321):317-21.

Kulkarni ML. Pediatric cardiology, 2nd ed, N. Delhi, Jaypee brothers; 2003:91-106.

Shibata H, Matsuzaki T, Hayashi N, Morishima A, Seino T. Congenital heart disease in high school and college students. Japan Heart J. 1997;18:457.

Mitchell SC, Korones SB, Berendes HW. Congenital heart disease in 56,109 birth incidence and natural history. Circulation. 1971;XLIII:323-32.

Onishi T, Hashida E, Rink K, Inoue T. The incidence and relative frequency of CHD in school children in 7-16 years in Sniga-perfecturs. Japan Circulation J. 1971:899.

Pestana C, Weidman WH, Swan HJC. Accuracy of preoperative diagnosis in CHD. Am Heart J. 1966;72(4):446-50.

Klewer SE, Samson RA, Donnerstein RL, Lax D, Zamora R, Goldberg SJ. Comparison of accuracy of diagnosis of congenital heart disease by history and physical examination versus echocardiography. Am J Cardiol. 2002;89:1329-31.

Swenson JM, Fischer DR, Miller SA, Boyle GJ, Ettedgui JA, Beerman LB. Are chest radiographs and electrocardiograms still valuable in evaluating new pediatric patients with Heart Murmurs or chest pain?. Pediatr. 1997;99(1):1-3.

Tandon R. Bedside evaluation of congenital heart disease. Indian Pediatr. 1972;9(6):301-5.

Jost CH, Turina J, Mayer K, Seifert B, Amann FW, Buechi M, et al. Echocardiography in the evaluation of systolic murmur of unknown case. Am J Med. 2000;108:614-20.






Original Research Articles