Study of clinical profile of acute lower respiratory tract infection in children aged 2 months to 5 years

Dhivyanarayani M., Raju V., Jeyachandran P.


Background: Acute respiratory infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in under-five chil-dren in developing countries. Hence, the present study was undertaken to study the various risk factors, clinical profile and outcome of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI) in children aged 2 months to 5 years. To study the risk factors associated with ALRI in these children. To ascertain the association of the various cultural practices prevalent in this area with ALRI.

Methods: 100 ALRI cases fulfilling WHO criteria for pneumonia, in the age group of 2 months to 5 years were evaluated for potential risk factors, clinical profile and outcome as per a predesigned proforma in a rural medical college.

Results: Socio-demographic risk factors like parental illiteracy, overcrowding, partial immunization and low socioeconomic status were potential risk factors; similarly, nutritional risk factors like early and late weaning, anemia, and malnutrition were associated with ALRI. Significant environmental risk factors were the use of biomass fuels, inadequate ventilation at home, and lack of separate kitchen.

Conclusions: The present study has identified various socio-demographic, nutritional and environmental risk factors for ALRI which can be tackled by effective health education of the community and effective training of peripheral health personnel.


Environmental risk factors, Malnutrition risk factors, Respiratory infections

Full Text:



Chantry CJ, Howard CR, Auinger P. Full breastfeeding duration and associated decrease in Respiratory Tract Infection in US children. Pediatrics. 2006;117:425-32.

Cowgill KD, Ndiritu M, Nyiro J, Slack MP, Chiphatsi S, Ismail A et al. Effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine introduction into routine childhood immunization in Kenya. JAMA. 2006;296:671-8.

Ganong WF. Gas transport between the lungs and the tissue. In: Ganong WF. Review of medical physiology. 22nd ed. New York. McGraw Hill. 2005:666-9.

Ganz T. Defensins: antimicrobial peptides of innate immunity. Nat Rev Immunol.2003;3(9):710-20.

Guyton and Hall Textbook of medical physiology. 11th ed. Philadelphia. Saunders Elsevier. 2006:507- 8.

Hawkes JS, Neumann MA, Gibson RA. The effect of breastfeeding on lymphocyte subpopulations in healthy term infants at 6 months of age. Pediatr Res. 1999;45:648-51.

Jain L, Vidyasagar D, Xanthou M, Ghai V, Shimada S, Blend M. In vivo distribution of human milk leukocytes after ingestion by newborn baboons. Arch Dis Child. 1989;64:930-3.

Janssen R, Bont L, Siezen CL, et al. Genetic susceptibility to respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis is predominantly associated with innate immune genes. J Infect Dis. 2007;196 (6):826-34.

Letterio JJ, Geiser AG, Kulkarni AB, Roche NS, Sporn MB, Roberts AB. Maternal rescue of transforming growth-beta 1 null mice. Science. 1994;264:1936-8.

Martineau AR, Wilkinson RJ, Wilkinson KA, Newton SM, Kampmann B, Hall BM et al. A single dose of vitamin D enhances immunity to mycobacteria. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007; 176(2):208-13.

Muhe L, Lulseged S, Mason KE, Simoes EA. Case-control study of the role of nutritional rickets in the risk of developing pneumonia in Ethiopian children. Lancet. 1997;349(9068):1801-4.

Ogawa J, Sasahara A, Yoshida T, Sira MM, Futatani T, Kanegane H, Miyawaki T. Role of transforming growth factor-beta in breast milk for initiation of IgA production in newborn infants. Early Hum Dev. 2004;77:67-75.

Pabst HF, Spady DW, Pilarski LM, Carson MM, Beeler JA, Krezolek M. Differential modulation of the immune response by breast or formula feeding of infants. Acta Paediatr. 1997;86:1291-7.

Rousset F, Garcia E, Defrance T, PĂ©ronne C, Vezzio N, Hsu DH, Kastelein R, Moore KW, Banchereau J. human B lymphocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1992;89:1890-3.

Udani PM. Vitamin D and deficiency Rickets. In: Udani PM. Textbook of Pediatrics. 1st ed. New Delhi. Jaypee brothers.1998:631-666.