Review of seizure disorders in children in the age group of six months to five years


  • Chandrashekhar Koli Department of Paediatrics, Terna Superspeciality Hospital and Research Centre, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
  • Sachin Darne Department of Paediatrics, Terna Superspeciality Hospital and Research Centre, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India



Antiepileptic drugs, EEG, Electroencephalography, Febrile convulsions, Generalized Convulsions, Seizure disorder


Background: Seizure disorder a term used to include epilepsy, febrile seizures and other types. The international classification and Diagnostic tools including EEG monitoring and MRI are helpful to categorize seizure and treat them with various antiepileptic medications.

Methods: Data from patients in the age group of 6 months to 5 years, over 2 months period, presenting with seizure disorders was collected in prescribed proforma and evaluated for type of seizure disorder, age of onset, family history of seizures, previous history of febrile convulsions, presence of neurological abnormality, EEG changes and response to drugs. They were followed up over a period of 2 years.

Results: In this study 200 children’s with seizure disorders from a period of 2 months, were screened, reviewed and followed up for a period of two years. Incidence of seizure disorder is 4.37% with male predominance. Of which febrile seizures (52.5%), Generalized Seizures (25.5%), partial seizures (12%), besides unclassified (10%) and status epilepticus (10%). 12% of the children had positive family history of epilepsy and 14.56% had history of previous febrile convulsion. Birth injuries (19.4%) and CNS infection (38.6%) and space occupying lesions (9.7%) constitute the major etiological factors. 10% patient with seizure disorder had abnormal neurological signs. EEG Examination showed 56.8% normal and 33.2% Generalized abnormality. On follow up 51% where found regular, out of which 30% went into remission.

Conclusions: Seizure disorder is quite significant condition in children. Though benign, the febrile seizures are the most common type of seizure in children. The major preventable etiological factors for seizures are Birth trauma and CNS infections. Clinical and EEG work up is necessary for proper management of seizures. Health education is needed to stress the importance of regular treatment and to educate for removal of stigmata.


Mikati M. Approach to Epilepsy in Children. Indian J Pediatrics. 1990;57:297-312.

Lennox WG. The heredity of epilepsy as told by relatives and twins. J AM Med Assoc. 1951;146:529-36.

Lennox WG: Epilepsy and related disorders. J Mental Sci. 1960;108:241-2 2.

Lennox WG, Jolly DH. Seizures, brain waves and intelligence tests of epileptic twins. Research publications-association for research in nervous and mental disease. 1954;33:325.

Michael R, Philip G, William Y. A neuropsychiatric study in childhood. Mac Keith Press. 1997 35;35.

Vandenberg BJ. Recurrence of febrile convulsions in young children. Epilepsia.1974;2:177-89.

Poole K, Moran N, Bell G, Solomon J, Kendall S, McCarthy M et al. Patients’ perspectives on services for epilepsy: a survey of patient satisfaction, preferences and information provision in 2394 people with epilepsy. Seizure-European J Epilepsy. 2000;9, 551-8.

Dikmen S, Matthews CG, Harley JP. The effect of early versus late onset of major motor epilepsy upon cognitive‐intellectual performance. Epilepsia 1975;16:73-81.

Dreifuss FE, M. Martinez-L, Roger AJ. Proposal for classification of epilepsies and epileptic syndromes. Epilepsia. 1985;26:268-78.

Leviton, Alan, and Linda D. Cowan. Epidemiology of Seizure Disorders in Children. Neuroepidemiol. 1982;1:62-83.

Caveness WF, HAAS JK, MERLIS AM LORENT, RADERMECKER J. A proposed international classification of epileptic seizures. Epilepsia. 1964;5:297-306.

Gregoriades, AD. A medical and social survey of 231 children with seizures. Epilepsia. 1972:13-20.

Metrakos K, Julius DM. Genetics of convulsive disorders II. Genetic and electroencephalographic studies in centrencephalic epilepsy. Neurol. 1961;11:474.

Hirtz DG. Generalized tonic-clonic and febrile seizures. Pediatr Clini North America. 1989;36:365-82.

Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW (eds): Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Amsterdam, North Holland Publishing Co. 1974;6.

Nelson, Karin B, Ellenberg JH. Prognosis in children with febrile seizures. Pediatri. ;197861:720-7.

Hauser WA, Kurland LT: Epidemiology of epilepsy in Rochester, Minnesota, 1935-1967. Epilepsia. 1975;16:1-66.

Gibbs FA, Gibbs EL, Lennox WG. Electroencephalographic classification of epileptic patients and control patients. Arch Neurol Psychiat. 1943:111;7

Keith HM, Robert PG. Neurologic lesions in relation to asphyxia of the newborn and factors of pregnancy: long-term follow-up. Pediatri. 1960;26:616-22.

Mundo-Vallarta D, Josefina, Robb JP. A follow‐up study of newborn infants with perinatal complications Determination of etiology and predictive value of abnormal histories and neurological signs. Neurol. 1964:14;413.

Millichap JG, Bickford RG, Klass DW, Backus RE, Infantile spasms, hypsarhythmia, and mental retardation. a study of etiologic factors in 61 Patients. Epilepsia. 1962;3:188-97.

Cooper JE. Epilepsy: In A Longitudinal Survey Of 5,000 Children. Brit Medi J. 1965;5441:1020-2.

Schmidt RP, Wilder BJ. FA. Davis Co, Epilepsy; Philadelphia, 1968.142

Knudsen, Ursin F. Optimum management of febrile seizures in childhood. Drugs. 1988;36:111-20.

Gibbs FA, Gibbs EL. Atlas of encephalography. 2, Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1952.

Kajitani T. Follow-up study of children with simple febrile convulsions and epileptiform. EEG activities without chronic anticonvulsant medication. Brain Dev. 1983;5:339:38.

Taistra, Rainer, Gerken H, Doose H. EEG spectral analysis in children with febrile convulsions. European Neurol. 1976;14:1-10.

Frantzen E, Lennox-Buchthal M, Nygaard A. Longitudinal EEG and clinical study of children with febrile convulsions. Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology. 1968;24:197-212.

Goodin, Douglas S, Michael JA. Does the interictal EEG have a role in the diagnosis of epilepsy?. Lancet. 1984;323::837-9.

Sofijanov, Nikola G. Clinical evolution and prognosis of childhood epilepsies. Epilepsia.1982; 23;1982:61-9.

Todt H. The late prognosis of epilepsy in childhood: results of a prospective follow‐up study. Epilepsia. 1984;25:137-44.

Ounsted C, Lindsay J, Norman R. Biological factors in temporal lobe epilepsy. Clin Develop Med. 1966;135.

Holmes, Gregory L. Partial seizures in children. Pediatri. 1986;77:725-31.






Original Research Articles