Vitamin D status in 3-6-year-old children of Mananthavady ICDS block in Wayanad, Kerala, India


  • Arif Mohamed Khan Department of Paediatrics, Government Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala, India
  • T. G. Sindhu Department of Paediatrics, Government Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala, India
  • M. Vijayakumar Department of Paediatrics, Government Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala, India



Rural, Tribal children, Vitamin D, Wayanad


Background: Despite plenty of sunlight, vitamin D deficiency has been reported in both urban and rural population in India. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in children between 3-6 years of age group belonging to Mananthavady ICDS block of Wayanad and to identify the sociodemographic variables affecting its level.

Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2014 to June 2015. 140 children were selected from 20 Anganawadis in Mananthavady ICDS block in Wayanad district of Kerala state by random methods. After taking relevant history and conducting detailed clinical examinations, blood samples were taken to assess 25(OH) Vitamin D, calcium, phosphorous and alkaline phosphatase levels. Statistical analysis was done using PASW software. Calculations of means were done using descriptive statistics and comparative analysis was done using independent T test.

Results: Out of the 140 children 51 belonged to tribal community. The mean 25(OH) Vitamin D level was 22.7ng/ml. 47.1% of the population had deficient, 35% insufficient and 17.9% adequate Vitamin D levels. There was no statistically significant difference in Vitamin D levels between children of tribal and non-tribal community. There was significant increase in Vitamin D levels during summer when compared to that of winter and autumn seasons.

Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among the rural children of 3-6-year age of Mananthavadi ICDS block. The Vitamin D levels were almost equal between the tribal and non-tribal children. Vitamin D levels are significantly higher during summer when compared to other seasons.


Joshi SR. Vitamin D paradox in plenty sunshine in rural India--an emerging threat. J Assoc Physicians India. 2008;56:749-52.

Balasubramanian S, Dhanalakshmi K, Amperayani S. Vitamin D deficiency in childhood-a review of current guidelines on diagnosis and management. Indian Pediatr. 2013;50(7):669-75.

Hossein-nezhad A, Holick MF. Vitamin D for health: a globalperspective. MayoClin Proc. 2013;88(7):720-55.

Scragg R, Sowers M, Bell C. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, ethnicity, and blood pressure in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Hypertens 2007;20:713-9.

Earthman CP, Beckman LM, Masodkar K, Sibley SD. The link between obesity and low 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations: considerations and implications. Int J Obes (Lond). 2012;36:387-96.

Chesney RW. Vitamin D and the magic mountain: the anti-infectious role of the vitamin. J Pediatr. 2010;156(5):698-703.

Theodoratou E, Tzoulaki I, Zgaga L, Ioannidis JP. Vitamin D and multiple health outcomes: umbrella review of systematic reviews and metaanalyses of observational studies and randomised trials. BMJ. 2014;348:g2035.

Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley DA, Heaney RP, et al. Evaluation, treatment and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society. Practice guideline. J. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:1911-30

Basu S, Gupta R, Mitra M, Ghosh A. Prevalence of vitamin d deficiency in a pediatric hospital of eastern India. Indian J Clin Biochem. 2015;30(2):167-73.

Marwaha RK, Tandon N, Reddy DHK, Agrawal R, Singh R, Sawhney RC, et al. Vitamin D and bone mineral density status of healthy school children in northern India. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82:477-82.

Harinarayan CV, Ramalakshmi T, Prasad UV, Sudhakar D. Vitamin D status in Andhra Pradesh: a population-based study. Indian J Med Res. 2008;127(3):2118.

Lehmann U, Gjessing HR, Hirche F, Mueller-Belecke A, Gudbrandsen OA, Ueland PM, et al. Efficacy of fish intake on vitamin D status: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, 2. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2015;102(4):837-47.

Cole CR, Grant FK, Tangpricha V, Swaby-Ellis ED, Smith JL, Jacques A, et al. 25-hydroxyvitamin D status of healthy, low-income, minority children in Atlanta, Georgia. Pediatr. 2010;125(4):633-9.






Original Research Articles