Study of resilience in children (4-11 year) of middle and upper-middle class families in Jabalpur, India


  • Avyact Agrawal Department of Pediatrics, NSCB Medical College Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India
  • Shivraj Singh Department of Pediatrics, NSCB Medical College Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India



Adversity, Children, Resilience


Background: Resilience as “the process of, capacity for, or outcome of successful adaptation despite challenging or threatening circumstances” is one of the more field. Protective factors are “influences that modify, ameliorate, or alter a person’s response to some environmental hazard that predisposes to a maladaptive outcome”. Easy going temperament and good self-regulation have been identified as protective factors in resilience. The ability to self-regulate also seems to be at the core of good interpersonal relationships and peer relationships, rule compliance, reduced risk of depression and anxiety, and a host of other areas fundamental to successful adaptation and functioning.

Methods: This study was conducted during period of January 2000 to October 2001. The sample comprised a total number of 400 children between 4-11 years age and their parents and caregivers. The material for the study was drawn from the two private schools situated in Jabalpur city. Tests used in the study were the Chi square test to test statistical significance, test of significance of difference and Correlating the effect of various factors, analysis of variance F statistics was computed.

Results: It was found in our study that the older children (8-11 years) were more outgoing, warm hearted, easy going and participating as compared to lower age group (4-7 yrs.) children.  Girls were significantly more resilient that boys in both the age groups i.e. 4-7 and 8-11 yrs. The girls were found to be more emotionally stable, calm and face reality in a very cool manner. Academic achievers were found to be more resilient, easy going, accommodating.  No any significant differences when children's resilience was compared with their parental educational status.

Conclusions: Girls were significantly more resilient that boys. The girls were found to be more emotionally stable, calm and faces reality in a very cool manner. Academic achievers were found to be more resilient, easy going. accommodating and participate in various extracurricular activities. Older children were more outgoing, warm hearted, easy going and participating.


Masten AS. Children who overcome adversity to succeed in life. Just in time research: Resilient communities. 2000:33-41.

Cicchetti D, Rogosch FA. The role of self-organization in the promotion of resilience in maltreated children. Development Psychopathol. 1997 Dec;9(4):797-815.

Reivich K, Shatte A. The resilience factors. New York: Broadway Books;2002.

Anthony EJ. Risk, vulnerability, and resilience: An overview. In Anthony EJ and Cohler BJ (Eds.), The invulnerable child. New York: Guilford Press;1987:3-48

Murphy LB, Moriarty A. Vulnerability, coping, and growth: From infancy to adolescence. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press;1976.

Masten AS. Ordinary magic: Resilience processes in development. American Psychologist. 2001;56:227-38.

Rutter M. Resilience in the face of adversity: Protective factors and resistance to psychiatric disorder. Br J Psychiat. 1985;147:598-611.

Werner EE. Resilience in development. Curr Directions Psychologic Sci. 1995;4:81-4.

Werner EE. Risk, resilience, and recovery: Perspectives from the Kauai Longitudinal Study. Development Psychopathol. 1993;5:503-15.

Werner EE, Smith RS. Journeys from childhood to midlife. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press;2001

Buckner JC, Mezzacappa E, Beardslee WR. Characteristics of resilient youths living in poverty: The role of self-regulatory process. Develop Psychopathol. 2003;15:139-62.

Eisenberg N, Guthrie IK, Fabes RA, Resier M, Murphy BC, Holgren R et al. The relations of regulation and emotionality to resiliency and competent social functioning in elementary school children. Child Devel. 1997;68:295-311.

Rubin KH, Coplan RJ, Fox NA, Calkins SD. Emotionality, emotion regulation, and preschoolers' social adaptation. Dev Psychopathol. 1995 Jan;7(1):49-62.

Feldman R, Klein PS. Toddlers' self-regulated compliance to mothers, caregivers, and fathers: implications for theories of socialization. Developmental Psychol. 2003 Jul;39(4):680-92.

Sonya hartnett, rosemary, Williamson. ‘Dotlit book review, ‘Frality, Resilience and Loss’: Thursday’s child.’ the online journal of creating writing 11 Aug. 2000. Available at






Original Research Articles