DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20181539

Prevalence, pattern and outcome of congenital malformations in a tertiary care centre in South India

Yazhini C. Neelambari, Prarthana Das, Srinivasan Sadagopan, A. N. Uma

Abstract


Background: Congenital malformations are of major concern as they are cosmetically unacceptable, often associated with significant functional abnormalities and may sometimes even be life-threatening. This study was done to explore the prevalence of structural congenital malformation among hospital newborns, both live and stillborn in a tertiary care center in Southern India.

Methods: This hospital-based prospective study involving all inborn neonates and still births was conducted for the period from January 2014 to December 2014. A total of 2276 newborn (2217 live births and 59 still births) were clinically examined for detection of gross congenital malformations and relevant investigations including karyotyping was done. Risk factors that had probable associations with birth defects were estimated by calculating the Odd’s Ratio. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-Square test.

Results: The prevalence of congenital malformations was 12%. Major malformations accounted for 53.28% and minor malformations 46.71%. The commonest structural malformation involved cardiovascular system. 58% of neonates did not require life style medications whereas 21.17% required surgical intervention. 20.8% of the cases succumbed to death.

Conclusions: Autopsy of stillborn babies should be done to evaluate the cause and incidence of malformations. High risk mothers should be identified in the antenatal period to detect malformations early and plan management accordingly.


Keywords


Autopsy, Genetics, Malformations

Full Text:

PDF

References


CDC. Key findings: Updated National birth prevalence estimates for selected birth defects in the United States, 2004-2006. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/features/birthdefects-keyfindings.html Accessed 10th June 2015.

Sharma R. Birth defects in India: Hidden truth, need for urgent attention. Indian J Hum Genet. 2013:19:125-9.

Sadler T, Langman J. Birth defects and prenatal diagnosis. In: Leland J, editor. Langman's Medical Embryology. 12th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2012:117-29.

Shamnas M, Arya PS, Thottumkal VA, Deepak MG. Congenital anomalies: a major public health issue in India. Int J Pharmaceutical Chem Biol Sci. 2013;3:577-85.

Baruah J, Kusre G, Bora R. Pattern of gross congenital malformations in a tertiary referral hospital in Northeast India. Indian J Pediatr. 2015;82:917-22.

Malla BK. One-year study of congenital malformations in maternity hospital (Prasutigriha) Thapathali. Kathmandu University Med J. 2007;5(4):557-60.

Dutta HK, Bhattacharya NC, Sarma JN, Kusre G. Congenital malformations in Assam. J Indian Association Pediatric Surg. 2010;15(2):54-6.

Patel ZM, Adhia RA. Birth defects surveillance study. Indian J Pediatr. 2005;72:400-4.

Rejum R, Dilip G, Saurav G, Narang R, Kamal BJ. Spectrum of congenital surgical malformations in newborns. J Indian Med Assoc. 2002;100:565-6.

Smith WD. Minor anomalies: clues to more serious problems and to the recognition of malformation syndromes. In: Kenneth LJ, editor. Smith's recognizable patterns of human malformation, 7th ed. USA: Elsevier; 2012:895-912.

Taksande A, Vilhekar K, Chaturvedi P, Jain M. Congenital malformations at birth in central India: a medical college hospital-based data. Indian J Hum Genet. 2010;16(3):159-63.

Mohammed YA, Shawky RM, Soliman AAS, Ahmed MM. Chromosomal study in new-born infants with congenital anomalies in Assiut University hospital: cross-sectional study. Egyptian J Med Hum Genetics. 2011;12:79-90.