A study of immunization status of children in the age group 2-5 years

Anil B. Kurane, Dokku Swathi


Background: An evaluation by UNICEF India coverage survey (2009) showed that in India, 61% of children are fully immunized which is significantly low. Objectives of this study were to determine Immunization status of children in the age group of 2 to 5 years and study the social factors influencing immunization status of a child. To know the reasons for partial and non-immunization and study relation of socio-economic status with immunization status.

Methods: A total 2000 children aged 2-5 years who are attending Pediatric OPD, Immunization clinics and admitted in Pediatric ward between May 2015 to May 2017 are enrolled in the present study. Subjects were selected by Simple random sampling method. Immunization status of these children was analyzed and the cause for partial and un-immunization were studied.

Results: Of 2000 children studied, 1303 (65.2%) were fully immunized,681 were partially immunized (34%) i.e the child had received at least one of the immunization mentioned in NIP and 16 of them were un-immunized (0.8%) i.e they had not received even a single vaccine.

Conclusions: The present study of immunization coverage of 65.2% among children attending pediatric hospital is far from satisfactory. The goal of achieving even 85% coverage seems to be an uphill task. Adverse effects following immunization, busy parents, lack of knowledge seems to be a major contributing factor for the non-success of this national programme. Age, birth order, parent’s occupation. parent’s education, mother’s age are statistically significant contributing factors for the poor immunization coverage among these children.


fully immunized,partially immunized,unimmunized

Full Text:



Chandramauli C. Census of India 2011: provisional population totals paper 1 of 2011 India Series 1, Chapter 6. New Delhi, India: Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner. 2011.

Narayanan A. Comparative and critical analysis of the importance given to Rural Development issues in The Times of India and The Hindu in the Months of February and March, 2012.

Andre FE, Booy R, Bock HL, Clemens J, Datta SK, John TJ, et al. Vaccination greatly reduces disease, disability, death and inequity worldwide. Bulletin WHO. 2008 Feb;86(2):140-6.

Vashishtha VM, Kumar P. 50 years of immunization in India: progress and future. Indian pediatrics. 2013 Jan 1;50(1):111-8.

Abhiyan WN. Sustainable Development Goals: Agenda 2030.

Madhavi N, Manikyamba D. Evaluation of immunization status and factors responsible for drop outs in primary immunization in children between 1-2 years: a hospital based study. Pediatric Review. Int J Pediatr Res. 2016;3(5).

Deivanayagam N, Nedunchelian K, Mala N, Ashok TP, Rathnam SR, Ahmed SS. Missed opportunities for immunization in children under 2 years attending an urban teaching hospital. Indian pediatrics. 1995 Jan 1;32(1):51-7.

Pande RP. Selective gender differences in childhood nutrition and immunization in rural India: the role of siblings. Demography. 2003 Aug 1;40(3):395-418.

Kar M, Reddaiah VP, Shashi Kant. Primary Immunization Status of Children in Slum Areas of South Delhi - The Challenge of Reaching the Urban Poor. Indian J Comm Med. 2001;26(3):151-4.

Yadav J, Singh P. Immunization Status of Children and Mothers in the State of Madhya Pradesh. Indian J Comm Med. 2004;29(3):147-8.

Prabhakaran TN, Varughese E. Immunization coverage of infants-Rural-Urban difference in Kerala. Indian Pediatr. 1994;31:139-43.

Mathew JL, Babbar H, Yadav S. Reasons for non-immunization of children in an urban, low income group in North India. Trop Doct. 2002;32(3):135-8.

Nirupam S. UIP in Sarojini Nagar block of Lucknow district. Indian J Comm Med. 1991;16(2):82-4.

Manjunath U, Pareek RP. Maternal knowledge and perceptions about the routine immunization programme -a study in a semiurban area in Rajasthan. Indian J Med Sci. 2003;57:158-63.

Kumar D, Aggarwal A, Gomber S. Immunization status of children admitted to a tertiary-care hospital of north India: Reasons for partial immunization or non-immunization. J Health Popul Nutr. 2010;28:300-4.

Srivastava AK, Shankar G. A study of immunization coverage and its determinants among under five children residing in urban field practice area of SN Medical College, Bagalkot, Karnataka, India. Indian J Forensic Community Med. 2017;4(1):48-52.

Khargekar NC, Khargekar VC, Shingade PP. Immunization Status of Children Under 5 Years in a Tribal Area, Parol, Thane District. Natl J Community Med. 2015;6(4):522-7.

Luman ET, McCauley MM, Shefer A, Chu SY. Maternal characteristics associated with vaccination of young children. Pediatrics. 2003;111:1215-8.

Tiwari RR, Kulkarni PN. Delayed immunisation against vaccine preventable diseases - factors responsible among children under 5 years of age. Indian J Med Sci. 1999;53:212-5.