Anthropometric assessment in children with congenital heart disease

Begam Rubia, Anjali Kher


Background: Congenital Heart Diseases (CHD) are often associated with malnutrition with prevalence of 64%. Malnutrition in CHD increases morbidity and mortality in these children and hence it is essential to assess the nutritional status of the children with CHD so that proper nutritional therapy and rehabilitation can be done.

Methods: In this case control study 126 cases of un operated CHD in the age group of >28 days to 10 years and 126 age and gender matched controls without CHD were studied during a period of 2 year. Informed consent from the parents was obtained and they were interviewed using pre-validated proforma and relevant clinical examination, detailed anthropometric assessment was done of all cases and control.

Results: Male to female ratio was 0.9:1. Maximum cases were in age group of 1 to 5 years. Acyanotic CHD was seen in 80.16% and cyanotic CHD was seen in 19.84%. Stunting was seen in 58.72% cases and in 41.26% of controls. 82.53% of cases and 24.6% of controls were underweight.

Conclusions: The prevalence of acyanotic CHD was more common than cyanotic CHD. In acyanotic CHD cases VSD was commonest and in cyanotic CHD cases TOF was the commonest lesion. The overall prevalence of underweight and stunting was high in cases than controls. In acyanotic CHD underweight and stunting was high than cyanotic CHD. In this study malnutrition correlated significantly with congestive heart failure, low hemoglobin level, poor dietary history and pulmonary hypertension and this was statistically highly significant.


CHD, CHF, Malnutrition

Full Text:



Mitchell SC, Korones SB, Berendes HW. Congenital heart disease in 56,109 births. Incidence and natural history. Circ. 1971;25:323-32.

Schultz AH, Localio AR, Clark BJ. Epidemiologic features of the presentation of critical congenital heart disease: Implantations for Screening. Pediatr. 2008;121:751-7 .

van der Linde D, Konings EE, Slager MA, Witsenburg M, Helbing WA, Takkenberg JJ, et al. Birth prevalence of congenital heart disease worldwide: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;58(21):2241-7.

Cameron JW, Rosenthal A, Olson AD. Malnutrition in hospitalized children with congenital heart disease. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1995;149:1098-102.

Kumar KR. Congenital heart disease in the developing world. Congenital Cardiol Today (North American Edition). 2005;3(4):1-5.

Kumar RK, Tynan MJ. Catheter interventions for congenital heart disease in third world countries. Pediatr Cardiol. 2005;26:1-9.

Vaidyanathan B, Roth SJ, Rao SG, Gauvreau K, Shivaprakasha K, Kumar RK. Outcome of ventricular septal defect repair in a developing country. J Pediatr. 2002;140:736-41.

Okoromah CA, Ekure EN, Lesi FE, Okunowo WO, Tijani BO, Okeiyi JC. Prevalence, profile and predictors of malnutritionin children with congenital heart defects a case-control observational study. Arch Dis Child. 2011;96:354-60.

Mondal S, D’Souza JL. Anthropometric profiles of children with congenital heart disease. Int J Pediatr Res. 2016;3(8).

Batte A, Lwabi P, Lubega S, Kiguli S, Otwombe K, Chimoyi L, et al. Wasting, underweight and stunting among children with congenital heart disease presenting at Mulago hospital, Uganda. BMC Pediatr. 2017;10:1-7.

Sjarif DR, Anggriawan SL, Putra ST, Djer MM, Anthropometric profiles of children with congenital heart disease. Med J Indones. 2011;20:40-5.

Hassan BA, Albanna EA, Morsy SM, Siam AG, Shafiel MA, Elsaadany HF, et al. Nutritional status in children with un operated congenital heart disease: an Egyptian center experience. Frontiers in Pediatr. 2015;53(3):1-5.

Al-Asy HM, Donia AA, El-Amrosy DM, Rabee E, Bendary AA. The levels of ghrelin in children with cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart disease. J Pediatr Sci. 2014;6:e209.

Wishel OF, Ma'ala EG. Feeding problems in children with congenital heart diseases in Nasiriya Heart Center. Iraqi Nat J Nur Specialties. 2014;27(1):111-8.