A study on comparison of neurological soft signs and minor physical anomalies between siblings of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and normal controls


  • Jayendra Seetharaman Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Child Health and Hospital for Children, Egmore, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
  • Karthikeyan Muthumani Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Child Health and Hospital for Children, Egmore, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
  • Sivaraman Thirumalaikumarasamy Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Child Health and Hospital for Children, Egmore, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India




ADHD, Minor physical anomalies, Neurological soft signs


Background: The objective of the study was to compare the neurological soft signs and minor physical anomalies between ADHD siblings and normal controls, to observe the correlations among these parameters with sex and socioeconomic status of the subjects and to find out the interrelationship between neurological soft signs (NSS) and minor physical anomalies (MPAs) in both groups if at all there is a correlation.

Methods: This case control study was conducted in children of diagnosed ADHD and normal of age group 8-13 years at Institute of Child Health and Hospital for Children, Egmore, Chennai, during the period February 2013 to October 2014. The number of subjects from both case and control group were 57 each. All the patients were assessed for NSS by PANESS and MPAs by using Waldrop scale.

Results: Total number of children included in the study is 114. Male dominance was noted in the study (64.9%). Most of the patients belong to upper lower class (39.5%). ADHD siblings showed a significant increase in NSS especially in the field of overflow, gaits and stations, and timed when compared with the normal children (P<0.05). In both the groups, the difference in sex was not statistically significant in overflow, gait and stations, total timed, total PANESS and MPA scale (p>0.05). In case group parameters like gait and total time were significantly correlated with MPA scale. In control group, significant correlations were noted only between total PANESS and MPA scale. No positive correlation was observed between NSS and MPAs with socioeconomic status of the study participants in both the groups (p>0.05).

Conclusion: The current findings indicate that no significant correlation was existed between sex and socioeconomic status with NSS and MPAs in both the groups. ADHD siblings failed to show a significant increase in MPAs but showed a significant increase in NSS. However more number of studies is warranted for minor physical anomalies in ADHD siblings as early diagnosis of ADHD could be a possibility in children born with minor physical anomalies even before 3 years.


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