DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20174181

Study of sleep pattern in children aged 1-12 years attending OPD at tertiary care hospital, Puducherry, India

C. Barathy, S. Prabha, Shanthi A. K., Devikittu .

Abstract


Background: Children differ in their sleep pattern from adults and within their developmental age groups. Good sleep habits help them in better sleep outcomes. Inadequate sleep can contribute to various health issues. Hence, this study was carried out to find out sleep pattern in children and identify factors affecting it so that suitable measures can be taken to ensure good sleep hygiene in children.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study done in children aged 1-12 years. Every 5th child who attended OPD were included. Children who were very sick or had chronic illness or pain were excluded. Details pertaining to sleep was recorded after written parental consent.

Results: The total sample size was 650. The mean age was 6.25±3.2 years. The mean bed time and wake up time was 9.18 pm±(1.02) and 6.41 am±(0.85) respectively. The mean night sleep duration was 9.38±1.05 hours. Co-sleeping was 97.5%. Sleep problem was seen in 51.1%. Screen time >2 hours contributed to late bedtime and insomnia. Reduced physical activity/exercise was significantly associated with sleep problems.

Conclusions: Sleep problems and poor sleep habits are common among children. Increased screen time and reduced physical activities in children contribute to poor sleep habits and sleep problem. 


Keywords


Children, Sleep, Sleep problems, Sleep habits, Sleep hygiene, Sleep pattern

Full Text:

PDF

References


Owens JA. Sleep Medicine. In:Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, Schor NF, Joseph W, Berhmann RE, editors. Nelson textbook of pediatrics. 19th ed. SouthAsia:W.B Saunders;2011:46.

Paruthi S, Brooks LJ, D'Ambrosio C, Hall WA, Kotagal S, Lloyd RM et al. Recommended amount of sleep for pediatric populations: a consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. J Clin Sleep Med. 2016;12(6):785-6.

Bharti B, Malhi P, Kashyap S. Patterns and problems of sleep in school going children. Indian Pediatr. 2006;43:35-8.

Ravikiran SR, Kumar PMJ, Latha KS. Sleep Problems in Preschool and School Aged Rural Indian Children. Indian Pediatr. 2011;48:221-3.

Suri JC, Sen MK, Adhikari T. Epidemiology of sleep disorders in school children of Delhi: A questionnaire based study. Indian J Sleep Med. 2008;3:42-50.

Stein MA, Mendelsohn J, Obermeyer WH, Amromin J, Benca R. Sleep and behavior problems in school-aged children. Pediatrics. 2001;107(4):60-64.

Owens JA, Spirito A, McGuinn M, Nobile C. Sleep habits and sleep disturbance in elementary school-aged children. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2000;21(1):27-36.

Night wakings in children available at http://www.sleep.org.au/documents/item/77. Accessed on 10.6.17.

Rozario CI, Jose O, Thayyil B. A clinical study on sleep pattern and sleep problems in school going children. GJRA. 2017;6(5):73-5.

Liu X, Liu L, Owens JA, Kaplan DL. Sleep patterns and sleep problems among schoolchildren in the United States and China. Pediatrics. 2005;115(1 Suppl):241-9.

Mindell JA, Sadeh A, Kwon R, Goh DY. Cross-cultural differences in the sleep of preschool children. Sleep Med. 2013;14(12):1283-9.

Hale L, Berger LM, LeBourgeois MK, Brooks-Gunn J. Social and demographic predictors of preschoolers’ bedtime routines. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2009 Oct;30(5):394-402.

Weissbluth M. Naps in children: 6 months-7 years. Sleep. 1995 Feb;18(2):82-7.

Simpkin CT, Jenni OG, Carskadon MA, Wright KP, Akacem LD, Garlo KG et al. Chronotype is associated with the timing of the circadian clock and sleep in toddlers. J Sleep Res. 2014 Aug 1;23(4):397-405.

LeBourgeois MK, Wright KP, LeBourgeois HB, Jenni OG. Dissonance between parent-selected bedtimes and young children's circadian physiology influences nighttime settling difficulties. Mind, Brain, and Education. 2013;7(4):234-42.

Shrestha D, Dhakal AK, Shakya A, Shah SC, Shakya H, Mehata S et al. Pattern of sleep in infants and toddlers visiting at a teaching hospital in Lalitpur. J Nepal Pediatr Soc. 2015;35(1):24-30.

Gupta R, Ali R, Verma S, Joshi K, Dhyani M, Bhasin K et al. Study of sleep disorders among young children using hindi translated and validated version of pediatric sleep questionnaire. J Neurosci Rural Pract. 2017;8(2):165-9.

Li L, Ren J, Shi L, Jin X, Yan C, Jiang F et al. Frequent nocturnal awakening in children: prevalence, risk factors, and associations with subjective sleep perception and daytime sleepiness. BMC Psychiatry. 2014 Jul 30;14(1):204.

Huang XN, Wang HS, Zhang LJ, Liu XC. Co-sleeping and children's sleep in China. Biologic Rhythm Res. 2010 Jun 1;41(3):169-81.

Cortesi F, Giannotti F, Sebastiani T, Vagnoni C. Cosleeping and sleep behavior in Italian school-aged children. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2004 Feb 1;25(1):28-33.

Montgomery-Downs HE, Gozal D. Sleep habits and risk factors for sleep-disordered breathing in infants and young toddlers in Louisville, Kentucky. Sleep Medicine. 2006 ;7(3): 211-9.

Luijk MP, Mileva-Seitz VR, Jansen PW, van IJzendoorn MH, Jaddoe VW, Raat H et al. Ethnic differences in prevalence and determinants of mother-child bed-sharing in early childhood. Sleep Medicine. 2013 Nov 30;14(11):1092-9.

Archbold KH, Pituch KJ, Panahi P, Chervin RD. Symptoms of sleep disturbances among children at two general pediatric clinics. J Pediatr. 2002;140(1):97-102.

Paavonen EJ, Pennonen M, Roine M, Valkonen S and Lahikainen AR. TV exposure associated with sleep disturbances in 5-to 6-year-old children. J Sleep Res. 2006 ;15(2):154-161.

Van den Bulck J. Television viewing, computer game playing, and internet use and self-reported time to bed and time out of bed in secondary-school children. Sleep. 2004;27(1):101-4.

Owens J, Maxim R, McGuinn M, Nobile C, Msall M, Alario A. Television-viewing habits and sleep disturbance in school children. Pediatrics. 1999;104(3):e27.

Nixon GM, Thompson JM, Han DY, Becroft DM, Clark PM, Robinson E et al. Falling asleep: the determinants of sleep latency. Arch Dis Child. 2009;94(9):686-9.

Brand S, Gerber M, Beck J, Hatzinger M, Pühse U, Holsboer-Trachsler E. High exercise levels are related to favorable sleep patterns and psychological functioning in adolescents: a comparison of athletes and controls. J Adolesc Health. 2010;46(2):133-41.

Rudnicka AR, Nightingale CM, Donin AS, Sattar N, Cook DG, Whincup PH et al. Sleep Duration and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes. Pediatrics. 2017;pii:e20170338.