A cross sectional study on the prevalence of structural congenital anomalies among neonates delivered in a tertiary care hospital, Chennai from January 2016 to February 2017
Keywords:Congenital anomalies, Congenital diaphragmatic hernia, Congenital heart disease, Neural tube defects
Background: Congenital anomalies are important contributors to infant and childhood deaths, chronic illness and disability. The pattern and type of anomaly varies regionally. The planning and the implementation of public health programs for congenital anomalies are dependent on the prevalence data. Adequate data is unavailable in our country. The objective of this study was to study the prevalence of congenital anomalies and the factors influencing them, in Government RSRM lying in hospital, Chennai from January 2016 to February 2017.
Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Government RSRM lying-in hospital, a tertiary care neonatal unit, from January 2016 to February 2017. The case records of neonates delivered during the study period were studied to identify those with congenital anomalies. The factors possibly influencing congenital anomalies were studied.
Results: The number of case records analyzed was 11242, out of which 157 neonates were reported to have structural congenital anomalies; the prevalence was 1.4%. Congenital heart disease formed the majority, 46.5% (73/157) of congenital anomalies identified. The most common extra-cardiac congenital anomalies noted were cleft lip/cleft palate (15/157) 9.6%, followed by single umbilical artery which was noted in 5.7% (9/157). Down’s syndrome was seen in 3.8% (6/157) and neural tube defects in 3.2% (5/157) of the babies with congenital anomalies.
Conclusions: The prevalence of commonly occurring congenital anomalies in the study hospital was comparable to the prevalence in other similar studies in India. The prevalence of neural tube defects was lower in our area compared to other countries whereas, that of acyanotic heart diseases were higher than in other studies.
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