A cross sectional study on the prevalence of structural congenital anomalies among neonates delivered in a tertiary care hospital, Chennai from January 2016 to February 2017


  • Vinodh Muthu Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Social Pediatrics, Government Stanley Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
  • Mekalai Suresh Kumar Department of Pediatrics, Pediatrics, Government RSRM Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
  • Anitha Ram Ponnappan Public Health consultant, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India




Congenital anomalies, Congenital diaphragmatic hernia, Congenital heart disease, Neural tube defects


Background: Congenital anomalies are important contributors to infant and childhood deaths, chronic illness and disability. The pattern and type of anomaly varies regionally. The planning and the implementation of public health programs for congenital anomalies are dependent on the prevalence data. Adequate data is unavailable in our country. The objective of this study was to study the prevalence of congenital anomalies and the factors influencing them, in Government RSRM lying in hospital, Chennai from January 2016 to February 2017.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Government RSRM lying-in hospital, a tertiary care neonatal unit, from January 2016 to February 2017. The case records of neonates delivered during the study period were studied to identify those with congenital anomalies. The factors possibly influencing congenital anomalies were studied.

Results: The number of case records analyzed was 11242, out of which 157 neonates were reported to have structural congenital anomalies; the prevalence was 1.4%. Congenital heart disease formed the majority, 46.5% (73/157) of congenital anomalies identified. The most common extra-cardiac congenital anomalies noted were cleft lip/cleft palate (15/157) 9.6%, followed by single umbilical artery which was noted in 5.7% (9/157). Down’s syndrome was seen in 3.8% (6/157) and neural tube defects in 3.2% (5/157) of the babies with congenital anomalies.

Conclusions: The prevalence of commonly occurring congenital anomalies in the study hospital was comparable to the prevalence in other similar studies in India. The prevalence of neural tube defects was lower in our area compared to other countries whereas, that of acyanotic heart diseases were higher than in other studies.


WHO. Congenital anomalies. Available at http://www.who.int/topics/congenital_anomalies/en/

Bacino CA. Genetic issues presenting in nursery. In: Hansen AR, Eichenwald EC, Stark AR, Martin CR. Cloherty and Starks manual of neonatal care. 8th edition. Wolter Kluwer publication; 2016.

Infant mortality rate: Tamil Nadu. Integrated Child Development Services, Tamil Nadu. Available at http://icds.tn.nic.in/imr-mmrachievement.html Acessed 19 May 2017

Abqari S, Gupta A, Shahab T, Rabbani MU, Ali SM, Firdaus U. Profile and risk factors for congenital heart defects: A study in a tertiary care hospital. Ann Pediatr Cardiol. 2016;9(3):216-21.

Shah GS, Singh MK, Pandey TR, Kalakheti BK, Bhandari GP. Incidence of congenital heart disease in tertiary care hospital. Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ). 2008;6(1):33-6.

Sawant SP, Amin AS, Bhat M. Prevalence, pattern and outcome of congenital heart disease in Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Hospital, Mumbai. Indian J Pediatr. 2013;80(4):286-91.

Pavri S, Forrest CR. Demographics of orofacial clefts in Canada from 2002 to 2008. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2013;50(2):224-30.

Omer IM, Abdullah OM, Mohammed IN, Abbasher LA. Research: prevalence of neural tube defects Khartoum, Sudan August. BMC Res Notes. 2016;9(1):495.

Seidahmed MZ, Abdelbasit OB, Shaheed MM, Alhussein KA, Miqdad AM, Khalil MI, et al. Epidemiology of neural tube defects. Saudi Med J. 2014;35(1):S29-35.

Burgos CM, Frenckner B. Addressing the hidden mortality in CDH: a population-based study. J Pediatr Surg. 2017;52(4):522-5.






Original Research Articles