Levels of vitamin D among overweight and obese adolescents: an observational study


  • T. Prashanth Reddy Department of Pediatrics, Navodaya Medical College and Hospital, Raichur, Karnataka, India
  • Kishore Reddy Department of Pediatrics, Navodaya Medical College and Hospital, Raichur, Karnataka, India
  • Madhu Sudhan Reddy Department of Pediatrics, Navodaya Medical College and Hospital, Raichur, Karnataka, India
  • Manjunath G. A. Department of Pediatrics, Navodaya Medical College and Hospital, Raichur, Karnataka, India




BMI, Obesity, Overweight, Sedentary life style, Vitamin D


Background: Normal growth and development requires vitamin D, and its deficiency compromises long term health and increases the risk of chronic disease. Severe vitamin D deficiency include rickets, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, increased risk of fracture, tooth loss. Studies indicate that vitamin D insufficiency (less severe than deficiency) is associated with a wide range of illnesses and chronic conditions, including type 1 diabetes, hypertension, multiple sclerosis and many types of cancer. Currently world is facing an unrecognized and untreated pandemic of vitamin D deficiency. This study aims at showing the relation between Vitamin D status and obesity in adolescent children and to know the dietary factors, life style factors like physical activity contributing to overweight and obesity in adolescents.

Methods: Study design: This is an observational study of 30 overweight and obese adolescents based on BMI were studied and their Vitamin D levels were assessed.

Results: A total of 14(46.7%) overweight and 16(53.3%) obese adolescents Vitamin D levels were assessed. 20(66.7%) had vitamin D levels <20ng/ml that is in the deficiency range.

4(13.3%) had in the insufficiency range (21-30ng/ml), 6(20%) had in the sufficient range. Results shows vitamin D levels were significantly less in obese and overweight adolescents.

Conclusions: Study results confirm that Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is common to obese and overweight adolescents, this may help to explain the relationship between obesity and several chronic diseases that are associated with poor Vitamin D status.


Aggarwal T, Bhatia RC, Singh D, Sobti PC. Prevalence of obesity and overweight in affluent adolescents from Ludhiana, Punjab. Indian Pediatrics. 2008;45:500-1.

World Health Organization. Obesity: preventing & managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation, Geneva. WHO; 2000.

Population of Corporation/CMC/TMC/TP (Population 2001 Census). Directorate of Municipal Administration. Bangalore; 2011.

Holick MF. High prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy and implications for health. Mayo Clin Proc. 2006;81(3):353-73.

Wortsman J, Matsuoka LY, Chen TC, Lu Z, HolickMF. Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity. Am J ClinNutr. 2000;72(3):690-3.

Ganji V, Zhang X, Shaikh N, Tangpricha V. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome and various cardiometabolic risk factors in US children and adolescents based on assayadjusted serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D data from NHANES 2001-2006. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94(1):225-33

Reis JP, von Mühlen D, Miller ER, Michos ED, Appel LJ. Vitamin D status and cardiometabolic risk factors in the United States adolescent population. Pediatr. 20091;124(3):e371-9.

Olson ML, Maalouf NM, Oden JD, White PC, Hutchison MR. Vitamin D deficiency in obese children and its relationship to glucose homeostasis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97(1):279-85.

Harkness LS, Bonny AE. Calcium and vitamin D status in the adolescent: key roles for bone, body weight, glucose tolerance, and estrogen biosynthesis. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2005;18:305-11.

Berkey CS, Rockett HRH, Willet WC, Colditz GA. Milk, dairy fat, dietary calcium, and weight gain: a longitudinal study of adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005;159:543-50.

Gordon CM, DePeter KC, Feldman HA, Grace E, Emans SJ. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy adolescents. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. 2004;158:531-7.

Saintonge S, Bang H, Gerber LM. Implications of a new definition of vitamin D deficiency in a multiracial US adolescent population: the national health and nutrition examination survey III. Pediatrics. 2009;123:797-803.

Reese RW. Vitamin D and bone health. J of Lancaster General Hospital. 2006;1:78-87.

Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Vinitha R, Thayyil M, Kumar CKS, Sheeba L, et al. Prevalence of overweight in urban Indian adolescent school children. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2002;57(3):185-90.

Kaneria Y, Singh P, Sharma DC. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in relation to socio-economic conditions in two different groups of school-age children of Udaipur city (Rajasthan). J Ind Academ Clinic Medic. 2006;7(2):133-5.

William H. Dietz. Do we fatten our children at TV set? Obesity and TV viewing in children and Adolescent. Paediatr: 1985;75(5):807-12.

Andersen RE. Relationship of Physical activity & Television watching with body weight and level of fitness among children. JAMA. 1998;12:2179-291.

Alemzadeh R, Rising R, Cedillo M, Lifshitz F. Obesity in children. Pediatric Endocrinology, Fourth edition, sMarcel Dekker, Inc. 2003;823-58.






Original Research Articles