Clinical profile and predictors of outcome in children admitted to PICU with acute encephalitis syndrome
Keywords:Acute encephalitis syndrome, Hyponatremia, Outcome, Seizures
Background: Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is defined as the acute onset of fever and change in mental status (including symptoms such as confusion, disorientation, coma or inability to talk) and/or new onset seizures (excluding febrile seizures) in a person of any age at any time of the year. AES is reported mainly from Assam, Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh contributing approximately to 80% cases with case fatality rate of 20-25%. In view of paucity of clinical studies from Tamil Nadu, this study was undertaken to have a better insight on the clinical profile and prognostic indicators of AES in children. Objective of present work was to study the clinical profile and predictors of outcome of Acute encephalitis syndrome patients admitted in PICU
Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in children with AES admitted to PICU, Stanley medical college over a period of 1year (May 2015-May 2016). 30 cases were studied. Clinical features, demography, immunisation status, and outcome were recorded. Results of blood investigations, peripheral smear, neuroimaging, CSF analysis and IgM ELISA for HSV, JE, CMV, Dengue were recorded and analysed.
Results: Mean age of cases was 3.5±3.3years. Male to female ratio was 1.1:1. Etiology included HSV (6.67%), malaria (3.33%), dengue (3.33%), tubercular meningitis (3.33%), AES of unknown origin (83.3%) 11, Most common presentation was seizures 21 (70%). 17 (56.6%)presented with GCS <8. 11 (36.6%) required inotrope support, 16 (53.4%) were ventilated. Laboratorial findings included, leukocytosis in 17 (66.7%), dysglycemia in 12 children (39.99%), hyponatremia in 10 (33.33%), hypernatremia in 8 (26.67%) Mortality was observed in 11 cases (36.67%). Hyponatremia (p=0.02) and cases requiring ionotrope support on admission (p=0.0003) were significantly associated with mortality.
Conclusions: There was no case of Japanese encephalitis. Hyponatremia being significantly associated with mortality among children with AES, warrants detailed evaluation to define the etiology which will aid in appropriate management. Maintaining euvolemia, prompt identification of shock and appropriate use of inotropes is of utmost importance. Varied and changing etiologies of AES poses a diagnostic challenge.
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