Ocular defect in children with cerebral palsy and its correlation with the types of cerebral palsy
Keywords:Ocular defect, Cerebral palsy, Children
Background: Cerebral palsy (CP) describes a group of permanent disorder of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to non-progressive disturbance that occurred in the developing fetal or infant brain. The motor disorders of cerebral palsy are often accompanied by disturbances of sensation, perception, cognition, communication and behavior, by epilepsy, and secondary musculoskeletal problem. However, no known study has been found on this aspect. Objective of this study was to evaluate the ocular defect in children with cerebral palsy and to correlate with the types of CP.
Methods: Study was done in the Paediatric Neurology unit of BSMMU from January 2012 to July 2012. One hundred thirty children with cerebral palsy were studied. The patients were randomly selected who full filled the inclusion criteria and ophthalmological examination was done.
Results: Sixty four (64%) of CP patients had pathological finding and 36% percent had normal finding. Most of the abnormalities were squint (strabismus) (40%) and refractive error (36.9%). Most of the ocular defects were found in spastic cerebral palsy, mainly in spastic quadriplegia (34.6%) and spastic diplegia (29.2%).
Conclusions: Ocular defect like squint and refractive error common associations of cerebral palsy. Spastic quadriplegic and diplegic children had more ocular defects.
Bax M, Goldstein M, Rosenbaum P, Leviton A, Paneth N, Dan B, et al. Proposed definition and classification of cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2005;47:571-6.
Shafer S, Moss K. Cerebral palsy and children with vision and hearing loss. Available at: http://www.livingwithcerebralpalsy.com/ vision-cerebral.php. Accessed on 30 December 2020.
Janet, Jenner, Suggs. Cerebral palsy risk factor, symptoms and medical diagnosis. Available at: http://www.medlawlegalteam.com/ cerebral¬-palsy. Accessed on 30 December 2020.
Ettinger ER. Optometric evaluation of the patient with cerebral palsy. J Behav Optom. 1991;2(5):115-22.
Black PD. Ocular defect in children with cerebral palsy. British Med J. 1980;487-8.
Black P. Visual disorder associated with cerebral palsy. Br J Ophthalmol. 1982;66:46-52.
Sobrado P, Suarez J, Garcia-Sanchez FA, Uson E. Refractive error in children with cerebral palsy, psychomotor retardation, and other non-cerebral palsy neuromotor disability. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1999;41:396-403.
Elias I. The genetics of strabismus. Am Orthopt J. 2001;51:67.
Bedinghaus T. Definition of refractive error. Refractive surgery: Refractive error. Am A Ophthalmol. 2009;10(4):1-5.
Olitsky SE, Coats DK. Amblyopia & its management. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, editors. Duane’s Ophthalmol. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams – Wilkins. 2009.
Kanski J. Clinical ophthalmology. 5th ed. Butterworth Heinemann. 2003;5.
Tabib SM, Khatoon S, Hassan MQ. Prevalence and risk factor of cerebral palsy: A study in the community of Bangladesh. Abstract of joint conference of Bangladesh College of physician & surgeon and college of physician & surgeon Pakistan 2008 in Bangladesh. Asian color printing ped-24.
Cerebral Palsy [online search 7th Jan 2012]. http://pedclerk.bsb.uchicago.edu/cp. (Accessed Aug 2010)
United Cerebral Palsy UCP: Press Room-Vocabulary Tips. Available at: http://www.ucp. org/ucp_generaldoc.cfm/1/9/37/37-37/447. Accessed on 21 August 2010.
Marasini S, Paudel N, Adhikari P. Ocular manifestation in children with cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2011;42:11-3.
Govinda A, Lamba PA. Visual disorder in cerebral palsy. Indian J Ophthalmol. 1988;36:88-91.
Lagunju IA, Oluleye TS. Ocular abnormalities in children with cerebral palsy. Afr J Med. 2007;36(1):71-5.
.Marasini S, Paudel N, Adhikari P, Shrestha JB, Bowan M. Ocular manifestation in children with cerebral palsy. Optom Vis Dev. 2011;42(3):178-82.
Estela M, Benitez-Nava M, Garrido E. Ophthalmologic changes in patients with cerebral palsy. Am Orthopt J. 1998;48:104-11.