DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20202605

Dipstick urine analysis for detection of renal abnormalities among school children

Atindra Mishra, Ruby Thakur

Abstract


Background: Urine analysis by dipstick is a useful tool to identify children with asymptomatic renal diseases.  Dipstick urinalysis screening was conducted in asymptomatic school children to detect prevalence of renal disease.

Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in 862 children of age 6 to 15 years studying in different schools of Birgunj, Nepal between January 2019 to June 2019. First morning mid-stream urine samples were obtained from students and tested by dipstick method. Children with abnormal findings were re-tested after fifteen days.

Results: Ninety-six (11.13%) children had urinary abnormalities at the first screening; 8 children had specific urinary abnormalities after second screening. 4 children had urinary tract infection, followed by glomerulonephritis, type 1 diabetes, hydronephrosis and nephrotic syndrome. Urinary abnormalities were more common in females than in males.

Conclusions: Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities are detected by urine screening program at school age. Further work-up reveals the specific diagnosis and effective interventions help reduce the renal disease in future.


Keywords


Dipstick urine analysis, Proteinuria, Renal disease, School children

Full Text:

PDF

References


Eknoyan G, Lameire N, Barsoum R, Eckardt KU, Levin A, Levin N, et al. The burden of kidney disease: improving global outcomes. Kidney Int. 2004;66(4):1310-4.

Nugent RA, Fathima SF, Feigl AB, Chyung D. The Burden of Chronic Kidney Disease on Developing Nations: A 21st Century Challenge in Global Health. Nephron Clin Pract 2011;118:c269-77.

Fraser CG, Smith BC, Peake MJ. Effectiveness of an outpatient urine screening program. Clin Chem. 1977;23(12):2216-8.

Shaw ST, Poon SY, Wong ET. Routine urinalysis. Is the dipstick enough? JAMA. 1985;253(11):1596-600.

Hajar F, Taleb M, Aoun B, Shatila A. Dipstick urine analysis screening among asymptomatic school children. North Am J Med Sci. 2011;3:179-84.

El-Abden MY, Abo-ElKheir OI, El-Sadek SM, El-Said AM, Awaad MA. Screening of renal diseases by urine analysis in primary school aged children at El-Gharbiya governorate-Egypt. Egypt J Hosp Med. 2013;50:24-33.

Okur M, Arslan S, Sami Guven A, Temel H, Selcuk Bektas M, Ustyol L. Determination of underlying causes in asymptomatic, early-stage renal diseases by dipstick test. Med Glas (Zenica). 2013;10(1):55‐8.

Cho BS, Kim SD. School urinalysis screening in Korea. Nephrol (Carlton). 2007;12 Suppl 3:S3‐S7.

Pugia MJ, Murakami M, Lott JA, Ohta Y, Kitagawa T, Yamauchi K, et al. Screening for proteinuria in Japanese schoolchildren: a new approach. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2000;38(10):975‐82.

Fouad M, Boraie M. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2016;27(3):500‐6.

Parakh P, Bhatta NK, Mishra OP, Shrestha P, Budhathoki S, Majhi S, et al. Urinary screening for detection of renal abnormalities in asymptomatic school children. Nephrourol Mon. 2012;4(3):551‐5.

Shajari A, Shajari MHFZH. Screening of renal diseases in the first primary school children in Shiraz. Acta Medica Iranica. 2007;45(3):215-8.

Al-kaabi A, Almaslamani T, Toaimah FH, Mohammad G, Al-Maadid A, Al-Bast DA, et al. Urinary screening for renal disease among apparently healthy school children in Qatar. J Trop Pediatr. 2012;58(1):81‐84.

Srinivasulu K, Rao K, Kumar K. Urine analysis as a screening tool in early detection of renal abnormalities in asymptomatic school children. World J Nephrol Urol. 2018;7(1):17-24.

Bakr A, Sarhan A, Hammad A, Ragab M, Salama OS, Al-Husseni F, et al. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among primary school children in Egypt. World J Pediatr. 2007;3(3):214-7.

Murakami M, Yamamoto H, Ueda Y, Murakami K, Yamauchi K. Urinary screening of elementary and junior high-school children over a 13-year period in Tokyo. Pediatr Nephrol. 1991;5(1):50-3.

Park YH, Choi JY, Chung HS, Koo JW, Kim SY, Namgoong MK, et al. Hematuria and proteinuria in a mass school urine screening test. Pediatr Nephrol. 2005;20(8):1126-30.

Lin CY, Sheng CC, Chen CH, Lin CC, Chou P. The prevalence of heavy proteinuria and progression risk factors in children undergoing urinary screening. Pediatr Nephrol. 2000;14(10-11):953-9.

Vehaskari VM, Rapola J. Isolated proteinuria: analysis of a school-age population. J Pediatr. 1982;101(5):661-8.

Murakami M, Hayakawa M, Yanagihara T, Hukunaga Y. Proteinuria screening for children. Kidney Int Suppl. 2005;(94):S23‐S27.

Bergstein J, Leiser J, Andreoli S. The clinical significance of asymptomatic gross and microscopic hematuria in children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005;159(4):353‐5.

Chandar J, Gómez-Marín O, del Pozo R, Sanders L, Montane B, Abitbol C, et al. Role of routine urinalysis in asymptomatic pediatric patients. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2005;44(1):43‐8.

Nebigil I, Tümer N. Asymptomatic urinary tract infection in childhood. Eur J Pediatr. 1992;151(4):308‐9.

Iitaka K, Oyama K, Sakai T, Izawa T, Tomuro M, Kanai K, et al. Screening for bacteriuria in healthy Japanese school children. Int J Pediatr Nephrol. 1984;5(3):159-62.

Yap HK, Quek CM, Shen Q, Joshi V, Chia KS. Role of urinary screening programmes in children in the prevention of chronic kidney disease. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2005;34(1):3-7.

Sekhar DL, Wang L, Hollenbeak CS, Widome MD, Paul IM. A cost-effectiveness analysis of screening urine dipsticks in well-childcare. Pediatr. 2010;125(4):660-3.