Social dilemma and vitamin D deficiency: a cross-sectional study of nutritional rickets in children ages 6 months to 24 months

Sajid S., Irfan Khan, Khalid K., Khalil A., Zahid I. Marwat, Shah N.


Background: In developing countries, malnutrition's is one of the challenges that still need to be addressed. Undernutrition is usually a result of the unavailability of food and/or repeated infections in children. Countries with comparatively lower per-capita incomes as well as those with middle per-capita income have its increased prevalence in younger age. Social dilemma of mothers, like exclusively breastfeeding, heavy clothing’s and practice of keeping babies inside the doors, lead vitamin D deficiency and ultimately into nutritional rickets. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of factors leading to nutritional rickets in children ages 6 months to 24 months.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Department of Pediatrics, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad, Pakistan from March to December 2017. After inclusion/exclusion criteria, total 160 patients of rickets were observed. Detailed history followed by vitamin D level (<15 ng/ml) was measure. Data was analyzed by SPSS-22 and all documents were locked with principal author.

Results: Present study showed that 62% children were in age ranged 6-12 months and 38% children were in age range 13-24 months. Mean age was 12 months with SD±2.16. Seventy nine percent children were male, and 21% children were females. More over 52% children had exclusive breast feeding, and 48% children did not have exclusive breast feeding. Similarly, 15% children had limited sun-light exposure and 85% children did not have limited sun-light exposure.

Conclusions: Present study concluded that a lack of health education and sunlight exposure and exclusive breastfeeding were the significant risk factors contributed to nutritional rickets among children of Abbottabad, Pakistan.


Children, Lower respiratory tract infections, Nutritional rickets

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