DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3291.ijcp20175564

Early breastfeeding initiation and incidence of neonatal sepsis in Chipinge District Zimbabwe

Gladys Mugadza, Mathilda Zvinavashe, Felicity Zvanyadza Gumbo, Babill Stray Pedersen

Abstract


Background: Neonatal sepsis is one of the leading causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality during the neonatal period especially in the first week of life. The objectives of this study were to determine early breastfeeding initiation (EBFI) and the incidence of neonatal sepsis in in the first week of life in Chipinge District, Zimbabwe.

Methods: After obtaining approval from the ethical institutional review board and Medical research council of Zimbabwe, a total of 200 healthy term neonates were recruited into a prospective cohort study within 24 hours of birth after the mothers had given an informed consent. Mother and baby pair was followed up at day 3 and day 7 to assess presence of infection using clinical checklist and physical examination.

Results: The Pearson correlation was significant at 0.01 level (2 tailed) at day 3 and day 7.  The findings revealed a significant association between EBFI and neonatal sepsis in the first week of life.

Conclusions: Neonatal sepsis is one of the leading causes of death during the neonatal period especially in the first week of life. Findings of the study revealed a significant Pearson correlation at 0.01 levels (2 tailed) at day 3 and day 7. Delayed initiation of breastfeeding increases the risk of neonatal sepsis and about 33 % neonatal deaths can be averted if breastfeeding is initiated within an hour of birth.


Keywords


Early breastfeeding initiation, Incidence, Neonatal sepsis

Full Text:

PDF

References


World Health Organisation [WHO]. Indicators for Assessing Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices. Part 3: Country profiles. Geneva; 2010. Available at http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/infantfeeding/9789241599757/en/

Edmond KM, Zandoh C, Quigley MA, Amenga-Etego S, Owusu-Agyei S, Kirkwood BR. Delayed breastfeeding initiation increases risk of neonatal mortality. Pediatrics. 2006 Mar 1;117(3):e380-6.

Mullany LC, Katz J, Li YM, Khatry SK, LeClerq SC, Darmstadt GL, Tielsch JM. Breast-feeding patterns, time to initiation, and mortality risk among newborns in southern Nepal. J Nutri. 2008 Mar 1;138(3):599-603.

Edwards MS, Baker CJ. Sepsis in the newborn in Krugman's infectious diseases of children. Mosby; Philadelphia, USA;2004.

Pan American Health Organization. Neonatal health in the context of maternal, newborn and child health for the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations Millennium Declaration, 47th Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization, 58th Session of the Regional Committee. Washington; DC;2006. Available at http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/168653/1/CD47-12-e.pdf

Young Infants Clinical Signs Study Group. Clinical signs that predict severe illness in children under age 2 months: a multicentre study. Lancet. 2008 Jan;371(9607):135-142.

Patel A, Banerjee A, Kaletwad A. Factors associated with prelacteal feeding and timely Initiation of breastfeeding in hospital-delivered infants in India. J Human Lactation. 2013;(29):572-8.

Sobel HL, Silvestre MA, Mantaring III JB, Oliveros YE, Nyunt US, Immediate newborn care practices delay thermoregulation and breastfeeding initiation. Acta Paediatrica. 2011;100(8):1127-33.

Khanal V, Adhikari M, Karkee R, Gavidia T. Factors associated with the utilisation of Postnatal care services among the mothers of Nepal: Analysis of Nepal demographic and health survey 2011. BMC Women Health. 2014;(14):1472-6874.

Senarath U, Siriwardena I, Godakandage SSP, Jayawickrama H, Fernando DN, Dibley MJ. Determinants of breastfeeding practices: An analysis of the Sri Lanka demographic and health survey 2006–2007. Maternal, Child Nutrition. 2012;(8):315-329.

Zimbabwe National Statistics Agency (ZIMSTAT), 2015. Zimbabwe Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2014, Final. Report. Harare, Zimbabwe. Available at https://www.unicef.org/zimbabwe/Zim_MICS5_Final_Report_FINAL.pdf

Nepal Demographic Health Survey. Ministry of Health and Population. Kathmandu. Nepal. 2011. Available at https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR257/FR257[13April2012].pdf

Sasaki Y, Ali M, Kakimoto K, Saroeun O, Kanal K, Kuroiwa C. Predictors of Breastfeeding in Early Infancy: A Survey Report from Phnom Penh, Cambodia. J Pediatr Nurs. 2010;(25):463-9.

Debes AK, Kohli A, Walker N, Edmond K, Mullany LC. Time to initiation of breastfeeding and neonatal mortality and morbidity: a systematic review. BMC public health. 2013 Sep 17;13(3):S19.

Lamberti LM, Walker CLF, Noiman A, Victora C, Black RE. Breastfeeding and the risk for diarrhoea morbidity and mortality. BMC Public Health. 2011;(11):S15.

Baqui AH, Darmstadt GL, Williams EK, Kumar V, Kiran TU, Panwar D et al. Rates, timing and causes of neonatal deaths in rural India: implications for neonatal health programmes. Bull World Health Organ. 2006;84(9):706-713.

Eman M, Rabie Shehab ED, Mohamed M, Adel ES, Mohamed RB, Ramadan H. Epidemiology of neonatal sepsis and implicated pathogens: a study from Egypt. BioMed Res Int. 2015:2015.

Gebremedhin D, Berhe H, Gebrekirstos K. Risk factors for neonatal sepsis in public hospitals of Mekelle City, North Ethiopia, 2015: Unmatched Case Control Study. PLoS ONE. 2016;5:11.

Tsolia M, Psoma M, Gavrili S, Petrochilou V, Michalas S, Legakis N et al. Group B streptococcus colonization of Greek pregnant women and neonates: prevalence, risk factors and serotypes. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2003;9(8):832-8.